UWM Center for By-Products Utilization

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University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Staff and Faculty

Rudolph N. Kraus Rudolph N. Kraus
Assistant Director


Email: rudik@uwm.edu

Mr. Kraus received his B.S. in Civil Engineering from the UW-Milwaukee in 1980 and a M.E. in Structural Engineering from UW-Milwaukee in 1983.  Mr. Kraus worked as a Research Assistant at UW-Milwaukee from 1980 to 1983 while pursuing his graduate studies.  His graduate research was on the use of nondestructive testing of concrete to determine concrete strength at early ages.  Nondestructive test methods used for the project were maturity, pulse velocity, and pullout methods.  Combined nondestructive test methods were also used to more accurately predict concrete strength.  The research conducted as part of this project also determined a more accurate method of maturity calculation that led to a change in the ASTM standard.

From 1984 to 1994, Mr. Kraus worked as a structural engineer for Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Chicago, IL.  He has worked with many utilities involving design and assessment of power plant systems and structures.  He worked on the evaluation and review of technical design criteria as well as providing technical support at field construction sites.  Mr. Kraus was also involved with the assessment of construction deviations while at the construction site.

Mr. Kraus is a member of the American Concrete Institute. From 1998–2001 he also served as the Secretary–Treasurer of the Wisconsin Chapter of the American Concrete Institute.  Mr. Kraus also serves on the Chapter's Nomination and Program Committees.  In January 2002, he was honored with the 2001 Orton Spanley Award by the Wisconsin Chapter of ACI.  This award was in recognition of his outstanding service to the concrete industry. 

Since November 1994, Mr. Kraus has been working as a Research Associate and Researcher at the UWM Center for By–Products Utilization where he is responsible for research involving the use of By–Products in construction materials.  In January 1998, Mr. Kraus became Assistant Director of the UWM Center for By–Products Utilization.  He is responsible for the development of proposals, coordination of lab activities, sample preparations, field and lab testing, progress reports, final reports, etc.  He has also coordinated field construction demonstration projects.  He is also responsible for day-to-day activities relating to projects to accomplish all data collection and analysis, etc.  He provides undergraduate students with training and guidance associated with the testing of concrete and By–Products following ASTM guidelines.  Technology transfer activities for use of by-product materials including field demonstration projects are regularly held by CBU.  He assists with and coordinates the activities associated with technology transfer.

Mr. Kraus has also presented the results of CBU research at CBU workshops as well as at ACI national conventions, and for ACI committee.  A list of his recent presentations follows:

Recent recycling related projects which he has been involved with include the utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash in CLSM (Controlled Low Strength Materials), evaluation and development of CLSM utilizing lightweight aggregate, evaluation of CLSM utilizing ash obtained from clean coal technologies, evaluation of lightweight aggregate manufactured from by-product materials, and use of by-product materials such as used foundry sand, coal and/or wood fly ash and bottom ash in the production of concrete, as well as dry-cast and wet-cast concrete bricks, blocks and paving stones.  Two current projects involve the use of wood ash generated from Wisconsin pulp and paper industry in structural concrete, and the use of residual solids generated by Wisconsin mills in concrete.

Mr. Kraus was the Principal Investigator of the project "Use of Wood Ash for the Production of Low-Strength Concrete and CLSM" funded by the UW System Solid Waste Research Program.  Currently he is Co-Principal Investigator for the project "Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete" funded by the US Department of Energy.

Mr. Kraus has co-authored numerous publications and reports on the use of By–Products.  His recent publications are given below.

  1. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Development and Demonstration of High Carbon CCPs and FGD By–Products in Permeable Roadway Base Construction, Year 2 — Second Quarter" Year 2 — Second Quarterly Report Submitted to CBRC Administration — Midwest Region, January 2002.
  2. Naik, T. R., Chun, Y. M., Kraus, R. N., Ramme, B., "Evaluation of Wet-Cast Concrete Products Using Industrial By–Products" A CBU Report, December 2001.
  3. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., McCormick, S., "Recycling of Wood Ash in Cement-Based Construction Materials" Presented at Residue to Revenue:  Wood Conference, Richmond, BC, CANADA, November 2001.
  4. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Implementation of Technology for Controlled Low-Strength Materials Using Illinois Coal Combustion Products" Final Technical Report Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute, November 2001.
  5. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Development and Demonstration of High–Carbon CCP's and FGD By–Products in Permeable Roadway base Construction" Year 2 — First Quarterly Report submitted to CBRC Administration–Midwestern Region, October 2001.
  6. Naik, T. R., Chun, Y. M., and Kraus, R. N., "Use of Residual Solids From Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready Mixed Concrete — Year 2" Second Quarterly Report for Year 2 submitted to US DOE, July 2001.
  7. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "MPU Ash as Potential Source for Construction Materials" Submitted to Manitowoc Public Utilities, Manitowoc, WI, July 2001.
  8. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Evaluation of Rockford Sand and Gravel Co. Lime By-Product" Submitted to Rockford Sand and Gravel Co., June 2001.
  9. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Development and Demonstration of High Carbon CCPs and FGD By–Products in Permeable Roadway Base Construction" Fourth Quarterly Report Submitted to CBRC Administration - Midwestern Region, July 2001.
  10. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Wood Ash:  A New Source of Pozzolamic Material" For Publication in ACI Concrete International, Detroit, MI, August 2001.
  11. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., and Kumar, R., "Wood Ash:  A New Source of Pozzolamic Material" For Presented and Published at the ACI Maharasha Chapter, Mumbai, India, July 2001.
  12. Naik, T. R., Chun, Y. M., Kraus, R. N., Pennock, L. C., Ramme, B. W., and Singh, S. S., "Strength and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements" Accepted for Publication in The ASCE Journal Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, March 2001.
  13. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., Kraus, R. N., Pennock, L. C., and Ramme, B. W., "Greener Concrete from Wood Fly Ash and Coal Fly Ash" For Presentation and Publication at the CANMET/ACI conference, San Francisco, CA, September 2001.
  14. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., and Kraus, R. N., "Development and Demonstration High–Carbon CCPs and FGD By–Products in Permeable Roadway Base Construction" Third Quarterly Report Submitted to CBRC Administration - Midwestern Region April 2001.
  15. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., Kraus, R. N., Ramme, B. W., and Domann, R. A., "Enhanced Materials of Concrete Construction Using Foundry By–Products" For Presentation and Publication at the CANMET/ACI Conference, San Francisco, CA, September 2001.
  16. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., and Kraus, R. N., "Development and Demonstration of High–Carbon CCPs and FGD By–Products in Permeable Roadway Base Construction" Second Quarterly Report Submitted to CBRC Administration — Midwestern Region, January 2001.
  17. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., "MPU Ash as a Potential Source for Construction Materials" Submitted to Manitowoc Public Utilities, Manitowoc, WI, January 2001.
  18. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Singh, S. S., and Chanodia, P. P., "Development of CLSM Using Coal Ash and Wood Ash, A Source of New Pozzolanic Materials" A CBU Report, December 2000.
  19. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., "Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials Using llinois Coal Combustion By–Products" Final Technical Report Issued to the Illinois  Clean Coal Institute for Project 99-1/2.IB-4, October 2000.
  20. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Singh, S. S., and Chanodia, P. P., "CLSM Containing Mixtures of Coal Ash and a New Pozzolanic Material" Presented and Published at the Fourteenth International Symposium on "Management & Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPS)" January 22-28, 2001, San Antonio, TX,        December 2000.
  21. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Singh, S. S., and Ramme, B. W., "Effects of Fly Ash and Foundry Sand on Performance of Architectural Precast Concrete" Presented and Published at the Fourteenth International Symposium on "Management and Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPS)," January, 2001, San Antonio, TX., September 2000.
  22. Naik T. R., Ramme B. W., Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S, S., "Long-Term Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements" Presented and Published at the Fourteenth International Symposium on "Management and Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPS)" January 22-28, 2001, San Antonio, TX., June 2000.23.Kraus, R. N., and Naik T. R., "Use of Wood Ash for the Production of Structural Concrete and CLSM" A Final Report Submitted to the Solid Waste Research Program, October 2000.
  23. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., Kraus, R. N., and Ramme, B. W., "Deicing Salt Scaling Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete" Presented at the ACI Fall Convention in Toronto, Canada, October 2000.
  24. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., and Kraus, R. N., "Development and Demonstration of High–Carbon CCPs and FGD By–Products in Permeable Roadway Base Construction" A Quarterly Report Submitted to CBRC Administration — Midwestern Region, September 2000.
  25. Naik, T. R., and Kraus R. N., "Fort James Materials: A Potential Source for Valuable Construction Materials" Submitted to Fort James Corporation, Green Bay, WI, July 2000.
  26. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., Kraus, R. N., and Ramme, B. W., "Long-Term Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements" Presented and Published at the CANMET/ACI International Seminar on High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements and Concrete:  Role in Growth and Sustainability, Lyon, France and Milan, Italy, November 2000.
  27. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Ramme, B. W. and Singh, S. S., "Long-Term Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Systems" Submitted to the ACI Materials Journal, June 2000.
  28. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Singh, S. S., Pennock, L.C., and Ramme, B .W., "Greener Concrete from Wood Ash and Coal Ash" Submitted for Presentation and Publication at the Three-Day International Symposium on "Sustainable Development and Concrete Technology" to be held in San Francisco, USA, on September 16-19, 2001.
  29. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Singh, S. S. and Ramme, B. W., "Effects of Fly Ash and Foundry Sand on Performance of Architectural Precast Concrete Systems" To be submitted to ACI Materials Journal, June 2000.
  30. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., "CPI Ash as a Potential Source for Construction Materials" Submitted to Consolidated Papers, Inc.,  July 2000.
  31. Naik, T. R., Chun, Y. M., Kraus, R. N., Ramme, B. W., and Singh, S. S., "Durability of Cast-Concrete Products Utilizing Recycled Materials" Submitted to ACI Materials Journal, June 2000.
  32. Naik, T. R., Chun, Y. M., Kraus, R. N., Pennock, L. C., Ramme, B. W., and Singh, S. S., "Strength and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements" a CBU Report, November 2000.
  33. Kraus, R. N., Naik, T. R., and Yu, D., "Development of Controlled Low Strength Materials and Concrete Using High Carbon Fly Ash" Final Project Report submitted to Wisconsin Electric Power Company, June 2000.
  34. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S. S., "Manufacture of Masonry Products Containing Large Amounts of Fly Ash" Presentation and Publication at the Seventh CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete in Madras, India, May 2000.
  35. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S. S., "Use of Glass and Fly Ash in Manufacture of CLSM" Presened and Published at the Fifth International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology in Singapore, May 2000.
  36. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S. S., "Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials Using Illinois coal Combustion By–Products" Project Management and Technical Report Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute for Project 99-1/2.1B-4, April 2000.
  37. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., "Application of Glass Cullet as Aggregates in Flowable Concrete with Fly Ash" Submitted for Publication to the American Concrete Institute, February 2000.
  38. Naik, T. R., and Chun, Y. M., and Kraus, R. N., and Pennock, L. L. C., and Ramme, B. W., and Singh, S. S., "Durability of Cast-Concrete Products Utilizing Recycled Materials Systems" CBU Report, January 2000.
  39. Naik, T. R., and Chun, Y. M., and Kraus, R. N., and Pennock, L. L. C., and Ramme, B. W., and Singh, S. S., "Strength and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavement Systems" CBU Report, March 2000.
  40. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., and Ramme, B. W., "Development of Dry-Cast and Wet-Cast Concrete Products Utilizing Fly Ash and Bottom Ash, Presentation and Publication at the Second International CBIP Conference on Fly Ash Disposal and Utilization, New Delhi, India, February 2000.
  41. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., and Chun, Y. M., and Ramme, B. W., Presented and Published at the Fifth International Conference on Durability of Concrete in Barcelona, Spain, January 2000.
  42. Kraus, R. N., and Naik, T. R., "Testing of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Freezing and Thawing Durability - Kingsford Dam" Final Report to WI Electric Power Company, Milwaukee, WI., December 1999.
  43. Naik, T. R., and Chun, Y. M., and Kraus, R. N., and Pennock, L. L. C., and Ramme, B. W., "Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements" Presented and Published at the Fifth CANMET/ ACI International Conference on Durability of Concrete, in Barcelona, Spain, September 1999.
  44. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., "Behavior of High-Performance Concrete in Summer Weather, ACI 1999 Spring Convention Technical Session on High Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans, Chicago, Illinois, March 1999.
  45. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S. S., "Effects of Temperature and Fly Ash on Behavior of High-Performance Concrete" Presented and Published at the International Conference 1999 on Infrastructure Rehabilitation, Improving the Quality of Life Through Better Construction: A vision for the Next Millennium, March 1999.
  46. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., "Use of Glass Cullet as Aggregates in Flowable Concrete with Fly Ash", ACI 1999 Spring Convention Technical Session on High Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans, Chicago, Illinois, March 1999.
  47. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., and Ramme, B. W., "Fifteen-Year Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Roads" ACI 1999 Spring Convention Technical Session on High Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans, Chicago, Illinois, March 1999.
  48. Naik, T. R., and Kraus, R. N., "The Role of Flowable Slurry in Sustainable Development in Civil Engineering", Presented and published at the ASCE Conference on Materials and Construction-Exploring the Connection, Cincinnati, Ohio, May, 1999.
  49. Naik, T. R., Wu, Z., and Kraus, R. N., "High Performance Concrete in Summer Weather", Presented at the ACI Spring Convention, Technical Session on High-Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans, Chicago, Illinois, March 1999.
  50. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., and Ramme, B. W., "Development of Dry-Cast and Wet-Cast Concrete Products Utilizing Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, and Used Foundry Sand", Proceedings of the CANMET/ACI Joe Cabrera Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand, June 1998.
  51. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., Kraus, R. N., and Hossain, M. M., "Deicing Salt Scaling Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Using Various Source of Fly Ash", Proceedings of the Sixth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Bangkok, Thailand, May 31 - June 5, 1998.
  52. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Sturzl, R. F., and Ramme, B. W.,  "Design and Testing CLSM Utilizing Clean Coal Ash," The Design and Application of Controlled Low-Strength Materials (Flowable Fill), ASTM STP 1331, A.K. Howard and J.L. Hitch, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997.54.Naik, T. R., Banerjee, D. D., Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S. S., "Use of Class F Fly Ash and Clean-Coal Blends for Cast-Concrete Products", Proceedings of the Twelfth ACAA International Symposium, Orlando, Florida, January 26-30, 1997.
  53. Naik, T. R., Banerjee, D. D., Kraus, R. N., and Singh, S. S., "Characterization and Application of Class F Fly Ash Coal and Clean-Coal Ash for Cement-Based Materials", Proceedings of the Twelfth ACAA International Symposium, Orlando, Florida, January 26-30, 1997.
  54. Naik, T. R., Kraus, R. N., Singh, S. S., and Hossain, M. M., "Deicing Salt Scaling Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Using Various Sources of Fly Ash", Proceedings of the Workshop on Flowable Slurry Containing Fly Ash and other Mineral By–Products, Fifth International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag And Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, June 4-9, 1995.
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