ETI Business and Diversity Methodology for Drill Downs
Using Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) files
released in 2004 and 2005, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Employment and Training Institute has prepared customized place-of-work
data from the perspective of central city neighborhoods seeking greater
business and employment opportunities for their residents. ETI developed
three sets of drill down reports using CTPP files: Business Place-of-Work
Drill Downs, Employer Diversity Drill Downs, and Neighborhood Workforce
Drill Downs. These drill down reports are now available free from the
Employment and Training Institute website (at
www.eti.uwm.edu) for all census
tracts in the U.S.
The Census Transportation Planning Package is a special tabulation available for the
1990 and 2000 censuses, offering detailed tables of the work location of
residents and commuters in each census tract, tailored to meet the data
needs of transportation planners nationwide. The 2000 CTPP was sponsored by the state and
federal departments of transportation.
Census Data Tabulations
Rounding Used in the CTPP 2000 Data
Definition of Workers
CTPP Workers-at-Work Compared to Other Employment
Place of Work Definitions
Definitions of Race/Ethnicity
Definitions of Class of Worker
Means of Transportation to Work
Poverty Status in 1999
Definitions of Industries
Definitions of Occupational Groupings
Most of the definitions and description of methodology reported here are excerpted from the
"Census Transportation Planning Package 2000 Definition of Subject Characteristics," posted
Departmnt of Transportation CTPP website and
the U.S. Census Bureau website.
Census Data Tabulations
The CTPP2000 includes a series of tabulations for various levels of geography, including state,
county, place, census tract and block group, and traffic analysis zone (TAZ). The tables in the
CTPP relate social and demographic characteristics of persons, households, and workers to their
journey-to-work characteristics, such as travel time and travel mode to work.
Three types of data tabulations are provided in the CTPP:
Place of residence tables show the number and characteristics of housing units,
persons, and workers who live in each geographic area.
work tables show the number and characteristics of persons who work in each geographic
area (regardless of where they live).
- Commuter flow tables
show the number and characteristics of persons in each worktrip origin-destination pair of
The three types of data tabulations are produced for a
full range of areas in the geographic hierarchy. Summary levels include state, county, minor
civil division, and place. At the detailed geographic level, data are available at the census tract
level and for participating states, at the block group and/or traffic analysis zone level.
The data on workers in CTPP 2000 are drawn from answers to questions 21, 22, 27, 28 and 29
of the Census 2000 long-form questionnaire, mailed to one in six U.S. households. (The long
form questionnaire is available at on the
Census Bureau website. Data were tabulated for workers 16 years old and over who were
at work during the week prior to when the questionnaire was filled out. This large sample is
used to estimate totals for the entire population.
Rounding Used in the CTPP 2000 Data
The estimates of workers in the CTPP 2000 tabulations have been rounded for each reported
cell. Values from 1 thru 7 were rounded to 4. Values of 8 or greater were rounded to the
nearest multiple of 5, unless the estimate already ended in 5 or 0, in which case it was not
changed. As a result, estimates derived from these files may not be identical to comparable
figures contained in other census products. The greater the number of records from these files
that are summed for comparison purposes, the more rounding errors there may be and the
greater the difference between the estimates from different sources may be.
In the special tabulations, workers are defined as people 16 years and older who
were employed and at work during the Census reference week. This is the week prior to when
the questionnaire was filled out, for most people the week ending with April 1, 2000. Workers
include both civilians and people in the Armed Forces, and part-time workers as well as full-
time. People who did not work during the reference week but had jobs or businesses from
which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, or
other personal reasons are not included in the place-of-work data.
If a worker held two jobs, only data about the primary job (the one where the person worked
the most hours during the preceding week) was requested. People who regularly worked in
several locations during the reference week were requested to give the address at which they
began work each day. For cases in which daily work was not begun at a central place each day,
the person was asked to provide as much information as possible to describe the area in which
he or she worked most during the reference week.
Work Compared to Other Employment Estimates
Counts of workers-at-
work obtained from CTPP 2000 will differ from other employment data sources. While
examining CTPP worker counts against other data sources, note that total jobs and total
employment in each geographical area will be HIGHER than CTPP worker
counts. The number of workers shown in CTPP Part 2 will be approximately 91
to 93 percent of the number of jobs counted by establishment inventories. (See the CTPP Status Report, May 2003.)
There are several reasons for differences between worker counts and total jobs:
- Census 2000 counts employed persons, not jobs. For persons with more than one
job, characteristics on only the principal job are collected. Nationally, about 6 percent of
workers have second jobs.
- CTPP 2000 reports only those workers who were at work during the
reference week. About 2 percent of employed workers are absent who are from work in any
given week. The Census Bureau also notes that people who had irregular, casual, or
unstructured jobs during the reference week may have erroneously reported themselves as not
- CTPP includes full-time and part-time workers, of all classes (wage and salary, self-
employed, private or public). By contrast, most other employment data sources count jobs.
Some sources omit persons who are self-employed, some count only wage and salary jobs, and
some exclude most public sector jobs.
- Because the decennial census questions on employment are designed to capture the
workplace at which the respondent worked the most hours, workers who worked two or more
jobs are captured at only one of their workplaces. The local effect is that CTPP data may show
substantially fewer workers in those areas/zones where second jobs and part-time employment
are more the norm. Examples of such areas include:
- Areas where retail
trade and similar service industries are predominant.
- Colleges and
university areas. Typically, colleges/universities employ considerable numbers of part-time
adjunct teachers, a trend that increased during the 1990s. Therefore, census tracts or traffic
analysis zones (TAZs) with colleges and universities may reflect lower worker totals than the
institution's own figures.
- Multi-site businesses and some job types
are not reported consistently by employers or employees, and as a result are difficult to geocode
and likely to show variability from one source to another. In business and establishment surveys,
companies with more than one work location may still report all their workers at a single
location, typically a corporate office building. The state unemployment insurance agencies that
maintain ES-202 files vary in their efforts to distribute job counts to the company's individual
- While most workers have only a single work location, there are industries where the
majority of jobs do not follow this pattern. Some people will give the address of their current
assignment, some will give the headquarters' address appearing on their mail or paycheck, and
some may give no answer.
"Place of Work"
The address where the individual worked most often during the reference week was recorded
on the Census 2000 questionnaire (question 22). The exact address (number and street name)
of the place of work was asked, as well as the place (city, town, or post office); whether or not
the place of work was inside or outside the limits of that city or town; and the county, state or
foreign country, and ZIP Code. If the person's employer operated in more than one location,
the exact address of the location or branch where the respondent worked was requested. When
the number and street name were unknown, a description of the location, such as the building
name or nearest street or intersection, was to be entered.
In areas where the workplace
address was coded to the block level, people were tabulated as working inside or outside a
specific place based on the location of that address, regardless of the response to question 22c
concerning city/town limits. In areas where it was impossible to code the workplace address to
the block level, people were tabulated as working in a place if a place name was reported in
question 22b and the response to question 22c was either "yes" or the item was left blank. In
selected areas, census designated places (CDPs) may appear in the tabulations as places of work.
The accuracy of place-of-work data for CDPs may be affected by the extent to which their
census names were familiar to respondents, and by coding problems caused by similarities
between the CDP name and names of other geographic jurisdictions in the same vicinity.
Place-of-work data are given for minor civil divisions (MCDs) (generally, cities, towns, and
townships) in 12 selected states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin),
based on the responses to the place of work question. Many towns and townships are regarded
locally as equivalent to a place, and therefore, were reported as the place of work. When a
respondent reported a locality or incorporated place that formed a part of a township or town,
the coding and tabulating procedure was designed to include the response in the total for the
township or town.
Comparability of Place-of-Work Data: 1980 - 2000
The wording of the question on place of work was substantially the same in Census 2000, the
1990 census, and the 1980 census. However, data on place of work from Census 2000 and the
1990 census are based on the full census sample, while data from the 1980 census were based
on only about one-half of the full sample. For the 1980 census, nonresponse or incomplete
responses to the place-of-work question were not allocated, resulting in the use of "not reported"
categories in the 1980 publications. However, for Census 2000 and the 1990 census, when place
of work was not reported or the responses was incomplete, a work location was allocated to the
person based on their means of transportation to work, travel time to work, industry, and
location of residence and workplace of others. Census 2000 and 1990 census tabulations,
therefore, do not contain a "not reported" category for the place-of-work data.
Comparisons between 1980, 1990 or Census 2000 data on the gross number of workers in
particular commuting flows, or the total number of people working in an area, should be made
with extreme caution. Any apparent increase in the magnitude of the gross numbers may be due
solely to the fact that for Census 2000 and the 1990 census, the "not reported" cases have been
distributed among specific place-of-work destinations, instead of tallied in a separate category,
as, a nonwork destination.
The CTPP2000 used four racial categories for reporting its data tables:
- Black or African American alone
- Asian alone
- All other (including persons reported as 2 or more races, Native Hawaiian or Pacific
Islander, American Indian or Alaska Native, or other race.
also identified as
- Hispanic or Latino
- Not Hispanic or Latino
For the ETI Diversity Drill Downs, all workers identified as "Hispanic or Latino" are included
in that category. The four categories of race listed above were used for persons who were not
identified as Hispanic or Latino. The resulting five racial/ethnic categories are used in the
Hispanic or Latino (all races)
- White alone AND non-Hispanic/Latino
- Black or African American alone AND non-Hispanic/Latino
- Asian alone AND non-Hispanic/Latino
- All other races and combinations of races AND non-Hispanic/Latino
Comparability of Race/Ethnic Data
The data on race in Census 2000 are not directly comparable to those collected in previous
censuses. First, respondents were allowed to select more than one category for race in 2000.
The CTPP tabulations considered persons to be of a race if they indicated that race
alone. Persons indicating two or more races were included in an "all other"
category for many of the tables provided. The fifth category listed above ("all other races and
combinations of races AND non-Hispanic/Latino") is consequently larger than the "Some other
race" category shown in the 2000 Census since it includes people with more than one race.
As in 1980 and 1990, people who reported a Hispanic or Latino ethnicity in the question on race
and did not mark a specific race category were classified in the "Some other race" category
("Other" in 1980 and "Other race" in 1990). They commonly provided a write-in entry such
as Mexicans, Puerto Rican, or Latino. In the 1970 census, most of these responses were
included in the "White" category. In addition, some ethnic entries that in 1990 may have been
coded as White or Black are now shown in the "Some other race" group.
Definitions of Class of Worker
In addition to naming their employer and describing the type of work, workers were asked to
indicate the type of employer for which they worked the most in the prior week. Occupations
and types of work are then broken down into the following classes.
- Private Wage and Salary Workers
- includes people who
worked for wages, salary, commission, tips, pay-in-kind, or piece rates for a private-for-profit
employer or a private-not-for-profit, tax-exempt, or charitable organization. Self-employed
people whose business was incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers
because they are paid employees of their own companies. Some tabulations present data
separately for these subcategories: "For profit," "Not-for-profit," and "Own business
- Government Workers
- includes people who are employees of any
local, state, or federal governmental unit, regardless of the activity of the particular agency.
Employees of foreign governments, the United Nations, or other formal international
organizations controlled by governments should be classified as "Federal Government
- Self-Employed Workers
- includes people who worked for profit or fees
in their own unincorporated business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm.
- Unpaid Family Workers
- includes people who worked 15 hours or
more without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a
In tabulations that categorize persons as either salaried or self-employed, the
salaried category includes private and government wage and salary workers; self-employed
includes self-employed people and unpaid family workers.
Means of Transportation to Work
Means of transportation to work refers to the principal mode of travel or type of conveyance that
the worker usually used to get from home to work during the reference week. People who used
more than one means of transportation to get to work each day were asked to report the one used
for the longest distance during the work trip.
The category "Car, truck, or van - drove
alone" includes people who usually drove alone to work, as well as people who were driven to
work by someone who then drove back home or to a nonwork destination during the reference
week. The category "Carpooled," includes workers who reported that two or more people
usually rode to work in the vehicle during the reference week. The category "Public
transportation" includes workers who usually used a bus, trolley bus, streetcar, trolley car,
subway, elevated, railroad, ferryboat, or taxicab during the reference week. The category
"Other means" includes workers who used a mode of travel that is not identified separately. The
category "Other means" may vary from table to table, depending on the detail shown in a
The means of transportation data for some areas may show
workers using modes of public transportation that are not available for those areas (for example,
subway or elevated riders in a metropolitan area where there actually is no subway or elevated
service). This result is largely due to people who worked during the reference week at a
location that was different from their usual place of work (such as people away from home on
business in an area where subway service was available) and people who used more than one
means of transportation each day but whose principal means was unavailable where they lived
(for example, residents of nonmetropolitan areas who drove to the fringe of a metropolitan area
and took the commuter railroad most of the distance to work).
Poverty Status in 1999
The Census Bureau used the federal government's official poverty definition. The poverty status
of families and unrelated individuals in 1999 was determined using 48 thresholds (income
cutoffs) arranged in a two dimensional matrix. The matrix consists of family size (from one
person to nine or more people) cross-classified by presence and number of family members
under 18 years old (from no children present to eight or more children present). Unrelated
individuals and two-person families were further differentiated by the age of the reference person
(under 65 years old, and 65 years old and over).
To determine a person's poverty status,
the person's total family income is compared with the poverty threshold appropriate for that
person's family size and composition. If the total income of that person's family is less than the
threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered poor, together with every
member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage,
or adoption, then the person's own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold.
Poverty status was determined for all people except institutionalized people, people in military
group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old.
These groups also were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating poverty
rates. They are considered neither "poor' nor "nonpoor."
Definitions of Industries
The Census long-form questionnaire asked for the name of the employer ("company, business,
or other employer" for which each worker worked in the reference week along with a
description of the kind of business or industry taking place where the worker was employed.
Responses were coded using the industry classification system developed from the 1997 North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS) published by the Office of Management and
Budget. NAICS is an industry description system that groups establishments into industries
based on the activities in which they are primarily engaged. NAICS is erected on a production-
oriented or supply-based conceptual framework in that establishments are grouped into industries
according to similarity in the processes used to produce goods or services. The NAICS sectors,
their two-digit codes, and the distinguishing activities of each are excerpted from the Department
of Commerce site at www.ntis.gov/naics.
11 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
- Activities of this sector are growing
crops, raising animals, harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from farms,
ranches, or the animals' natural habitats.
- 21 Mining
- Activities of this sector are extracting naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and
ore, liquid minerals, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas; and beneficiating
(e.g., crushing, screening, washing, and flotation) and other preparation at the mine site, or as
part of mining activity.
- 22 Utilities
- Activities of this sector are generating, transmitting,
and/or distributing electricity, gas, steam, and water and removing sewage through a permanent
infrastructure of lines, mains, and pipe.
- 23 Construction
- Activities of this sector are erecting buildings and
other structures (including additions); heavy construction other than buildings; and alterations,
reconstruction, installation, and maintenance and repairs.
- Activities of this sector are the mechanical, physical, or chemical
transformation of material, substances, or components into new products.
- 41-43 Wholesale Trade
- Activities of this sector are selling or
arranging for the purchase or sale of goods for resale; capital or durable nonconsumer goods;
and raw and intermediate materials and supplies used in production, and providing services
incidental to the sale of the merchandise.
- 44-46 Retail Trade
- Activities of this sector are retailing merchandise
generally in small quantities to the general public and providing services incidental to the sale
of the merchandise.
- 48-49 Transportation and Warehousing
- Activities of this sector are
providing transportation of passengers and cargo, warehousing and storing goods, scenic and
sightseeing transportation, and supporting these activities.
- Activities of this sector are distributing information and cultural
products, providing the means to transmit or distribute these products as data or
communications, and processing data.
- 52 Finance and Insurance
- Activities of this sector involve the creation,
liquidation, or change in ownership of financial assets (financial transactions) and/or facilitating
- 53 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
- Activities of this sector are
renting, leasing, or otherwise allowing the use of tangible or intangible assets (except
copyrighted works), and providing related services.
- 54 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
- Activities of this
sector are performing professional, scientific, and technical services for the operations of other
- 55 Management of Companies and Enterprises
- Activities of this sector
are the holding of securities of companies and enterprises, for the purpose of owning controlling
interest or influencing their management decision, or administering, overseeing, and managing
other establishments of the same company or enterprise and normally undertaking the strategic
or organizational planning and decision making of the company or enterprise.
- 56 Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation
- Activities of this sector are performing routine support activities for the
day-to-day operations of other organizations.
- 61 Educational Services
- Activities of this sector are providing
instruction and training in a wide variety of subjects.
- 62 Health Care and Social Assistance
- Activities of this sector are
providing health care and social assistance for individuals.
- 71 Arts,
Entertainment, and Recreation
- Activities of this sector are operating or providing
services to meet varied cultural, entertainment, and recreational interests of their patrons.
- 72 Accommodation and Food Services
- Activities of this sector are
providing customers with lodging and/or preparing meals, snacks, and beverages for immediate
- 81 Other Services (except Public Administration)
- Activities of this
sector are providing services not elsewhere specified, including repairs, religious activities,
grantmaking, advocacy, laundry, personal care, death care, and other personal services.
- 91-93 Public Administration
- Activities of this sector are
administration, management, and oversight of public programs by Federal, State, and local
Definitions of Occupational Groupings
The occupational classification system used during Census 2000 consists of 509 specific
occupational categories arranged into major occupational groupings. Some occupation groups
are related closely to certain industries (i.e., healthcare providers account for major portions of
health care occupations). However, the industry categories include people in other occupations.
(For example, people employed in the health care industry include occupations such as security
guard, and secretary.) The following occupational groupings used for the CTPP 2000 tables are
summarized from the CTPP documentation files on CD.
Management Occupations, Part -- chief executives; general and operations
managers; legislators; managers, including advertising and promotions, marketing
and sales, public relations, administrative service, computer and information systems, finance,
human resources, industrial production, purchasing, transportation, storage, and distribution
- Farmers and Farm Managers -- farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers;
farmers and ranchers.
- Management Occupations, Part -- education administrators; funeral directors;
managers in construction, engineering, food service, gaming, lodging, medical and health
services, natural sciences, property, real estate, community association, social and community
service; postmasters and mail superintendents.
- Business and Financial
Operations Specialists -- agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes;
purchasing agents and buyers; claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators;
compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation; cost
estimators; human resources, training, and labor relations specialists; logisticians; management,
budget, and credit analysts; meeting and convention planners; financial and other business
operations specialists; accountants and auditors; appraisers and assessors of real estate; personal
financial advisors; insurance underwriters; financial examiners; loan counselors and officers; tax
examiners, collectors, and revenue agents; tax preparers.
- Computer and Mathematical Occupations -- computer scientists and systems
analysts; computer programmers, software engineers, and support specialists; database, network,
and computer systems administrators; network systems and data communications analysts;
actuaries; mathematicians; operations research analysts; statisticians; miscellaneous mathematical
- Architecture and Engineering Occupations -
architects; surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists; engineers, including
aerospace, agricultural, biomedical, chemical, civil, computer hardware, electrical and
electronics, environmental, industrial engineers, marine, materials, mechanical, mining and
geological, nuclear, petroleum, and all other engineers; drafters; engineering technicians;
surveying and mapping technicians.
- Life, Physical and Social Science Occupations - scientists,
including agricultural, food, biological, conservation, medical, atmospheric and space, materials,
environmental, physical, and all other scientists; astronomers and physicists; chemists;
geoscientists; economists; foresters; market and survey researchers; psychologists; sociologists;
urban and regional planners; miscellaneous social scientists and related workers;
technicians, including agricultural and food science, biological, chemical, geological
and petroleum, nuclear, and other life, physical, and social science technicians.
- Community and Social Service Occupations -- counselors; social workers;
miscellaneous community and social service specialists; clergy; directors, religious activities and
education; religious workers, all other.
- Legal Occupations -- lawyers; judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers;
paralegals and legal assistants; miscellaneous legal support workers.
- Educations, Training, and Library Occupations - teachers,
including postsecondary, preschool, kindergarten, elementary, middle school, secondary school,
special education, and other teachers and instructors; archivists, curators, and museum
technicians; librarians; library technicians; teacher assistants; other education, training and
- Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations - artists;
designers; actors; producers and directors; athletes, coaches, umpires; dancers and
choreographers; musicians, singers, and related workers; entertainers and performers, sports and
related workers; announcers; news analysts, reporters and correspondents; public relations
specialists; editors; technical writers; writers and authors; miscellaneous media and
communication workers; broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators;
photographers; television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors; all other
media and communication equipment workers.
- Healthcare Practitioners and Technicians Occupations -- chiropractors;
dentists; dietitians and nutritionists; optometrists; pharmacists; physicians and surgeons;
physician assistants; podiatrists; registered nurses; audiologists; occupational, physical, radiation,
recreational, respiratory and all other therapists; speech-language pathologists; veterinarians; all
other health diagnosing and treating practitioners; clinical laboratory and diagnostic related
technologists and technicians; dental hygienists; emergency medical technicians and paramedics;
health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians; licensed practical and licensed
vocational nurses; medical records and health information technicians; opticians; miscellaneous
health technologists and technicians; other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations.
- Healthcare Support Occupations -- nursing, psychiatric, and home health
aides; occupational therapist assistants and aides; physical therapist assistants and aides; massage
therapists; dental assistants; medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations.
- Protective Service Occupations -- first-line supervisors/mangers of
correctional officers, police and detectives, and fire fighting and prevention workers;
supervisors, protective service workers, all other; fire fighters; fire inspectors; bailiffs,
correctional officers, and jailers; detectives and criminal investigators; fish and game wardens;
parking enforcement workers; police and sheriff's patrol officers; transit and railroad police;
animal control workers; private detectives and investigators; security guards and gaming
surveillance officers; crossing guards; lifeguards and other protective service workers.
- Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations -- chefs and head cooks;
first-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers; cooks; bartenders; food
preparation and service workers, including fast food; counter attendants, cafeteria, food
concession, and coffee shop; waiters and waitresses; food servers; dining room and cafeteria
attendants and bartender helpers; dishwashers; hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee
- Building and Grounds cleaning and Maintenance Occupations -- first-line
supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial, landscaping, lawn service, and
groundskeeping workers; janitors and building cleaners; maids and housekeeping cleaners; pest
control workers; grounds maintenance workers.
- Personal Care and Service Occupations -- first-line supervisors/managers
of personal service and gaming workers; animal trainers; nonfarm animal caretakers; child care,
personal care and service, recreation and fitness, funeral service, and gaming workers; motion
picture projectionists; ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; miscellaneous entertainment
attendants and related workers; barbers; hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists; baggage
porters, bellhops, and concierges; tour and travel guides; transportation attendants; personal and
home care aides; and residential advisors.
- Sales and Related
Occupations -- first-line supervisors/managers of sales workers; cashiers; counter and
rental clerks; salespersons; advertising sales agents; insurance, securities, commodities, and
financial service sales agents; travel agents; sales representatives; models, demonstrators, and
product promoters; real estate brokers and sales agents; sales engineers; telemarketers; door-to-
door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers; sales and related workers,
- Office and Administrative Support Occupations -- first line
supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers; clerks, including
billing, posting, accounting, auditing, payroll, timekeeping, procurement, brokerage,
correspondence, court, municipal, license, file, loan, new accounts, order, information, loan,
record, postal service, mail, travel, shipping, receiving, traffic, stock, hotel, motel, resort desk,
production, planning, expediting, insurance claims, policy processing, and office clerks;
operators, including switchboard, telephone, communications equipment, mail
processors, mail processing machine, and office machine operators; bill and account collectors;
gaming cage workers; tellers; credit authorizers, checkers; customer service representatives;
eligibility and loan interviewers; library assistants, clerical; human resources assistants;
receptionists; reservation and transportation ticket, cargo, and freight agents; couriers and
messengers; dispatchers; meter readers, utilities; postal service mail carriers and sorters; order
fillers; weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping; secretaries and
administrative assistants; computer operators; data entry keyers; word processors and typists;
desktop publishers; proofreaders and copy markers; statistical assistants; other office and
administrative support workers.
- Farming, Fishing, and Forestry
Occupations -- first-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers;
agricultural inspectors; animal breeders; graders and sorters, agricultural products; miscellaneous
agricultural workers; fishers and related fishing workers; hunters and trappers; forest and
conservation workers; logging workers.
- Construction and Excavation Occupations -- first-line supervisors/managers
of construction trades and extraction workers; boilermakers; brickmasons, blockmasons, and
stonemasons; carpenters; carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers; cement masons, concrete
finishers, and terrazzo workers; construction laborers; paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators; pile-driver operators; operating engineers and other construction equipment operators;
drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers; electricians; glaziers; insulation workers;
painters, construction and maintenance; paperhangers; pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters; plasterers and stucco masons; reinforcing iron and rebar workers; roofers; sheet
metal workers; structural iron and steel workers; helpers, construction trades; construction and
building inspectors; elevator installers and repairers; fence erectors; hazardous materials removal
workers; highway maintenance workers; rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators;
septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners; derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators,
oil, gas, and mining; earth drillers; explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters;
mining machine operators; roof bolters, mining; roustabouts, oil and gas; helpers-extraction
workers; other extraction workers.
- Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations -- first-line
supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairs; repairers, including
computer, automated teller, office machine, electric motor, power tool, electrical, electronics,
electronic equipment, automotive body, home appliance, precision instrument and equipment,
signal and track, and office machine repairers; installers and repairers, including
electronic home entertainment equipment, radio and telecommunications equipment, automotive
glass, control and valve, electrical power-line, and telecommunications line installers and
repairers; avionics technicians; security and fire alarm systems installers; aircraft mechanics and
service technicians; automotive service technicians and mechanics; bus and truck mechanics and
diesel engine specialists; heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics;
small engine, vehicle, and mobile equipment mechanics; heating, air conditioning, and
refrigeration mechanics and installers; industrial and refractory machinery mechanics;
maintenance and repair workers, general; maintenance workers, machinery; millwrights; coin,
vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers; commercial divers; locksmiths and
safe repairers; manufactured building and mobile home installers; riggers; helpers-installation,
maintenance, and repair workers; other installation, maintenance, and repair workers.
- Production Occupations -- first-line supervisors/managers of production and
operating workers; assemblers, including aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging,
systems, electrical, electronics, electromechanical, engine, and other machine assemblers and
fabricators; machine operators and tenders, including food and tobacco roasting,
baking, drying, food cooking, shoe, textile bleaching and dyeing, packaging and filling, and
cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders; machine setters, operators, and
tenders, including extruding and drawing, forging, rolling, cutting, punching, press,
drilling and boring, milling and planing, molding, plating and coating, textile cutting, textile
knitting, weaving, textile winding and twisting and drawing out, extruding and forming, wood
sawing, woodworking, chemical processing, extruding, forming, pressing, compacting, and
paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders; machine tool setters, operators and
tenders, including drilling and boring, grinding, lapping, polishing, buffing, lathe,
turning, and multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders: structural metal fabricators
and fitters; bakers; butchers and other meat poultry, and fish processing workers; food
batchmakers; computer control programmers and operators; machinists; metal furnace and kiln
operators and tenders; model makers and patternmakers; welding, soldering, and brazing
workers; heat treating equipment settlers, operators, and tenders; heat treating equipment setters,
operators, and tenders, metal an plastic; lay-out workers; tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners;
metalworkers and plastic workers, all other; bookbinders and bindery workers; job printers;
prepress technicians and workers; printing machine operators; laundry and dry-cleaning workers;
pressers, textile, garment, and related materials; sewing machine operators; shoe and leather
workers and repairers; tailors, dressmakers, and sewers; fabric and apparel patternmakers;
upholsterers; textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other; cabinet makers and bench
carpenters; furniture finishers; model makers and patternmakers, wood; woodworkers, all other;
power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers; stationary engineers and boiler operators;
water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators; miscellaneous plant and system
operators; crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers; cutting workers;
furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders; inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers,
and weighers; jewelers and precious stone and metal workers; medical, dental, and ophthalmic
laboratory technicians; painting workers; photographic process workers and processing machine
operators; semiconductor processors; cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators
and tenders; cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders; etchers and engravers;
molders, shapes, and casters; tire builders; helpers-production workers; production workers, all
- Transportation and Material Moving Occupations -- Supervisors,
transportation and material moving workers; aircraft pilots and flight engineers; air traffic
controllers and airfield operations specialists; ambulance drivers and attendants, except
emergency medical technicians; bus drivers; driver/sales workers and truck drivers; taxi drivers
and chauffeurs; operators, including motor vehicle, railroad brake, signal, switch,
ship, conveyor, dredge machine, excavating machine, loading machine, hoist, winch, industrial
truck, industrial tractor, pumping station, crane, tower, and shuttle car operators; locomotive
engineers and operators; railroad conductors and yardmasters; subway, streetcar, and other rail
transportation workers; sailors and marine oilers; ship and boat captains; ship engineers; bridge
and lock tenders; parking lot and service station attendants; transportation inspectors; other
transportation workers; conveyor tenders; cleaners of vehicle sand equipment; laborers and
freight, stock, and material movers, hand; machine feeders and offbearers; packers and
packagers, hand; refuse and recyclable material collectors; tank car, truck, and ship loaders;
material moving workers, all other.
- Armed Forces -- Military officer
special and tactical operations leaders/managers; first-line enlisted military supervisors/managers;
military enlisted tactical operations and air/weapons specialists and crew members; military, rank
For Further Information
Send comments to: Employment and Training Institute, University of Wisconsin-
Milwaukee, 161 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 6000, Milwaukee, WI 53203. Website:
www.eti.uwm.edu. Email: email@example.com. Phone: 414-227-3380. Fax: 414-2273233.
Milwaukee Drill photo courtesy of Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation.
Page updated July 3, 2006
Employment and Training Institute
School of Continuing Education
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Direct comments to: firstname.lastname@example.org