Guilherme Indig

Guilherme L. Indig

Associate Professor

Office: Chemistry 639
Phone: 414-229-5034
e-mail: glindig@uwm.edu

Degree(s):

Ph.D., University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Lab Members | Presentations | Publications

Research Description:

My research interests lie in the broadly defined areas of photochemistry and photobiology. The main objective of my research program is the development of new modalities of tumor imaging and therapy based on selective targeting of neoplastic tissue with highly fluorescent and/or highly phototoxic agents (i.e. photosensitizers). This work is multi-disciplinary and lies at the chemistry-biology interface. The overall research design borrows modern experimental techniques and theories from fields such as physical-organic photochemistry, biophysics, biochemistry, and cell biology. Current research focuses primarily on the concepts of (i) mitochondrial targeting and (ii) receptor-assisted tumor targeting.

(i) The observation that enhanced mitochondrial transmembrane potential is a prevalent cancer cell phenotype has provided the conceptual basis for the development of mitochondrial targeting as a novel therapeutic strategy for both chemo- and photochemotherapy of neoplastic diseases. Because the plasma transmembrane potential is negative on the inner side of the cell, and the mitochondrion transmembrane potential is negative on the inner side of this organelle, extensively conjugated cationic molecules, i.e. cationic dyes, displaying appropriate structural features are electrophoretically driven through these membranes and tend to accumulate inside energized mitochondria.In keeping with the higher mitochondrial transmembrane potential typical of tumor cells, a number of cationic dyes have been found both to accumulate in larger amounts and to be retained for much longer periods in the mitochondria of these cells as compared to normal cells. Moreover, the phototoxic effects associated with some of the cationic dyes known to accumulate in mitochondria were found to be much more pronounced in tumor cells than in normal cells (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Figure 1. Subcellular localization, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity of RhBr2 n-octyl ester (See Belostotsky et al., 2011).

The structural determinants of the specific accumulation of certain cationic species into cell mitochondria are not entirely understood though, and the lack of a model to describe the relationship between the molecular structure of these dyes and their disproportionate accumulation in tumor-cell mitochondria has prevented mitochondrial targeting from becoming a more dependable therapeutic strategy.We are currently working on the development of a reliable model to guide the design of new drugs for selective and effective photochemical destruction of tumor cells via mitochondrial targeting. To this end, we are currently exploring how the molecular structure of extensively conjugated cationic molecules affect their cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and ultimately mitochondrial accumulation. While our biological models provide information on the structural determinants of subcellular localization, our photochemical investigations provide information on the determinants of dye phototoxicity (or drug potency; Figure 2). 

Figure 2
Figure 2. Transient absorption spectra for the highly phototoxic, mitochondria specific, and tumor cell selective dye RhBr2.

(ii) Aggressive cytoreductive surgery remains the first line of defense in the treatment of a large variety of cancers. However, the intraoperative assessment of tumor margins is still primarily based on palpation and visual inspection, resulting frequently in incomplete tumor resection. In this project we explore the hypothesis that intraoperative fluorescence-guided delineation of tumor margins can highly facilitate the achievement of complete tumor resection in surgical oncology.Here we also explore the concept of concurrent intraoperative imaging and photodynamic therapy of tumors using appropriate receptor-targeted fluorescent and phototoxic agents (i.e. the “see-and-treat” concept).Because a variety of receptors are cancer specific (e.g. the folate receptor, the strogen receptor, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor), fluorescent and phototoxic receptor-targeted probes can be conveniently developed for distinct needs and aplications (Scheme 1).

 webpage scheme 1
Scheme 1. (from Bai and Bornhop, Current Medicinal Chemistry 19(28), 4742-58, 2012)


Selected Publications:

Cho, H.; Cho, C.S.; Indig, G.L.; Lavasanifar, A.; Vakili, M.R.; Kwon, G.S. (2014). Polymeric Micelles for Apoptosis-Targeted Optical Imaging of Cancer and Intraoperative Surgical Guidance. PLOS ONE, 9 (2), e89968.

Cho, H.; Indig, G.L.; Weichert, J.; Shin, H.C.; Kwon, G.S. (2012) In vivo cancer imaging by poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) micelles containing a near-infrared probe.Nanomedicine - Nanotechnology Biology and Medicine, 8, 228-236.

Belostotsky, I.; da Silva, S.M.; Paez, M.G.; Indig, G.L. (2011). Mitochondrial targeting for photochemotherapy. Can selective tumor cell killing be predicted based on n-octanol/water distribution coefficients? Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 86, 302-314.

Oliveira, C.C.; Turchiello, R.; Kowaltoski, A.J.; Indig, G.L.; Baptista, M.S. (2011). Major determinants of photoinduced cell death: Subcellular localization versus photosensitization efficiency. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 51, 824-833.

Lacerda SHD, Abraham B, Stringfellow TC, Indig GL (2005). Photophysical, photochemical, and tumor-selectivity properties of bromine derivatives of triarylmethanes and rhodamine-123. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 81, 1430-1438.

Kandela IK, Lee W, Indig GL (2003). Effect of the lipophilic/hydrophilic character of cationic triarylmethane dyes on their selective phototoxicity toward tumor cells. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 78, 157-169.

Kandela IK, Bartlett JA, Indig GL (2002). Effect of molecular structure on the selective phototoxicity of triarylmethane dyes towards tumor cells. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 1, 309-314.

Indig GL, Anderson GS, Nichols MG, Bartlett JA, Mellon WS, Sieber F (2000). Effect of molecular structure on the performance of triarylmethane dyes as therapeutic agents for photochemical purging of autologous bone marrow grafts from residual tumor cells. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 89, 88-99.

Bartlett JA, Indig GL (1999). Effect of self-association and protein binding on the photochemical reactivity of triarylmethanes. Implications of noncovalent interactions on the competition between photosensitization mechanisms type I and type II. Photochemistry and Photobiology 70, 490-498.

Baptista MS, Indig GL (1998). Effect of BSA-Binding on Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of Triarylmethane Dyes. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 102, 4678-4688.


Lab Members (Top)

Current Group Members

Graduate Students
Sibel Ibryamova (Ph.D.)
Zhe Cao (M.S.)

Former Group Members (Milwaukee and Madison)

Postdoctoral Research Associates / Visiting Scholars
Gary B. Anderson
Nathan T. Allen

Inessa Belostotsky
Mauricio S. Baptista

Silvia H.D. Lacerda
Woojae Lee

Paulo F. Moreira
Sandra M. da Silva
Prof. Antonio C. Tedesco (University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil)
Prof. Cristina S. Ortiz (National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina)
Prof. Gerardo A. Argüello (National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina)

Graduate Students
Jeremy A. Bartlett, Ph.D.
Irawati K. Kandela, M.S.
Lavinia M. Lewis, Ph.D.
Melissa R. Pergande, M.S.
Marina Sorokina, M.S.
Bindu Abraham, Ph.D. (Visiting Student - Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland – Baltimore County, Maryland, IL. Major Professor at institution of origin, Lisa A. Kelly)
Miriam G. Gallardo, Ph.D. (Visiting International Student – Miguel Lillo Foundation, Institute of Botany, and National University of Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina. Major Professor at institution of origin, Fernando E. Prado)
Carla S. Oliveira, Ph.D. (Visiting International Student - Institute of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of São Paulo at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Major Professor at institution of origin, M.S. Baptista)
Erika M. Stein, Ph.D. (Visiting International Student - Institute of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of São Paulo at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Major Professor at institution of origin, P. Colepicolo)

Undergraduate Research Students
Joel C. Ambord
Jacob S. Becker
Azhar Bougary
John P. Brias
Matthew P. Chambers
Trudy J. Coehoorn
Julianne M. Decaria
James A. De Mint
David A. Ehlert
Skylar R. Fiorvanti
Michele L. Gliniecki
Christopher J. Halbrook
Amanda R. Hill
Thanh T. Hoang
Wei M. Hum
Matthew P. Kavalauskas
Mellisa R. Killen
April D. Koch
Mellisa A. Kumar
Owen N-S. Li
Michelle W. Li
Alison R. Marciniak
Abbey M. Mattes
Samantha A. Meneau
Tzi M. Ng
Angela W. Norton
David C. Park
Joshua A. Parr
Sarah Perdue
Matthew Reher
Sepideh Saleki
Luis A. Saucedo
Alexander M. Spence
Scott V. Streff
Yoseline Torres
Maria K. Welch
Kim Zilavy

Pre-College Research Students
Nikki Odom
Robert Olvera
Harry Overly III
Grace S. Park
Erica Sanford


Conference Presentations and Invited Talks/Lectures at Universities and Industries (Top)

(Name of presenter shown in bold - presentation modality shown underlined)

Indig, G. L. (2014). Invited Talk "Mitochondrial Targeting in Photochemotherapy of Neoplastic Diseases" Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI. (host, Prof. L. Valenzano)

Indig, G. L. (2014). Invited Lecture "Visible and Near-Infrared Light in Tumor Detection and Therapy" Concordia University, Chicago, IL.(host, Prof. D. Schwert)

De Paula, Q.A.; Colepicolo, P.; Indig, G.L.; da Costa Ferreira, A.M. (2012). Poster "Antiproliferative activity of anitumor copper-oxindole agents on human sarcoma cell lines MES-SA and MES-SA/Dx5" 243rd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, San Diego, CA.

Stein, E.M.; Andreguetti, D.X.; Rocha, C.S.; Fujii, M.T.; Baptista, M.S.; Colepicolo, P.; Carvalho, E.P.; Indig, G.L. (2011). Poster "Search for cytotoxic agents in multiple Laurencia complex seaweed species harvested from the Atlantic ocean zone that bates the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo" III Workshop of the Brazilian Algae Network, Paty do Alferes, RJ, Brazil.

Indig, G.L. (2010). Invited Talk"Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors" Department of Chemistry and the Dental School, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil (host, Prof. E. Piva)

Indig,G.L. (2010). Invited Talk "Mitochondrial Targeting in PDT: Screening for New Drug Candidates" Department of Botany, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil (host, Prof. P.A. Horta)

Halbrook, C.; Indig, G.L. (2010). Poster "Can Rhodamine-123 Analogs be used to overcome Multidrug Resistance in Photodynamic Therapy?"42nd Central Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Dayton, OH.

Pergande, M.; Indig, G.L. (2010). Poster “Metabolic effects on mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cellular morphology in CV-1 cells” 42nd Central Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Dayton, OH.

Indig, G.L. (2010). Invited Talk"Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Neoplastic Diseases" Institute of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of São Paulo at São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil (host, Prof. M.S. Baptista).

Indig, G.L. (2010). Invited Talk"Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy of Neoplastic Diseases" Department of Chemistry, University of São Paulo at São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil (host, Prof. M.H. Gehlen)

Sorokina, M; Indig, G.L. (2009). Poster“Photoinactivation of e. coli and s. aureus with triarylmethanes, phenothiazines and oxazines. A comparative study" 38th Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Lincolnshire, IL. Book of Abstracts, abstract 257.

Indig, G.L. (2008). Invited Talk “Effect of H-type colorant aggregation on the photostability of liquid formulations” 34th Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Burlingame, CA. Book of Abstracts, p 31.

Indig, G.L. (2008). Invited Talk “Molecular exciton effects on photophysical and photochemical properties of dye-dye and biolpolymer-dye complexes” 7th International Meeting on the Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. London, UK.

Belostotsky, I.; Da Silva, S.M.; Indig, G.L. (2008). Invited Talk “Mitochondrial specificity and tumor cell selectivity of bromine derivatives of rhodamine 123 and its ester analogs” 7th International Meeting on the Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. London, UK.

Indig, G.L.(2007). Invited Lecture “Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Photochemistry” Annual Meeting of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, San Diego, CA.

Indig, G.L.; Moreira, P.; Silva, S.; Abraham, B. (2006). Invited Talk “Photophysical and photochemical properties of bromine derivatives of rhodamine-123”33rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. Book of Abstracts, p. 41.

Indig, G.L. (2006). Invited Lecture “Photophysics and photochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences” 33rd Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico.

Belostotsky, I.; Paez, M.G.; Silva, S.M.D.; Indig, G.L. (2006). Contributed Talk “Effect of lipophilic/hydrophilic character on the mitochondrial localization off ester derivatives of rhodamine-123” 33rd Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. Book of Abstracts, p. 45.

Belostotsky, I.; Silva S.M.D.; Lacerda, S.H.D.; Paez, M.G.; Indig, G.L. (2006). Contributed Talk “Mitochondrial specificity and tumor cell selectivity of bromine derivatives of rhodamine-123 and its propyl, pentyl, and octyl ester analogs” 17th Inter-American Photochemical Society Winter Conference, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Book of Abstracts, abstract S30.

Belostotsky, I.; Paez, M.G.; Silva, S.M.D.; Indig, G.L. (2006). PosterEffect of lipophilic/hydrophilic character on the selective mitochondrial localization of ester derivatives of rhodamine-123” 37th Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Milwaukee. WI.

Belostotsky, I.; Silva, S.M.D.; Paez, M.G.; Indig, G.L. (2006). Poster “Photophysical, photochemical and mitochondrial properties of propyl, pentyl, and octyl analogs of rhodamine-123”50th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Indig, G.L. (2004).Invited Talk“Mitochondrial Targeting in Chemo- and Photochemotherapy of Neoplastic Diseases”Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA (host, Dr. A.C. Templeton).

Indig, G.L. (2004).Invited Lecture“Principles of Photophysics and Photochemistry”Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA (host, Dr. A.C. Templeton).

Indig, G.L. (2004).Invited Talk“Mitochondrial Targeting in Chemo- and Photochemotherapy of Neoplastic Diseases”March Meeting of the Milwaukee Section of the American Chemical Society, Carroll College, Waukesha, WI (host, Prof. J.J. Piatt). The Amalgamator, 59, 12.

Indig, G.L. (2004). Invited Talk “Spectroscopic, Chemical and Photochemical Properties of a New Series of Tumor-Selective Cationic Photosensitizers” 5Th International Meeting on the Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products, The Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, UK.

Indig, G.L. (2004). Invited Lecture “Fundamentals of Photochemistry” 5Th International Meeting on the Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products, The Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, UK.

Oliveira, L.S.; Baptista, M.S.; Indig, G.L. (2002). Poster “Localization and Photochemistry of Crystal Violet in Reversed Micelles” VII Latino-American Meeting on Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vina del Mar, Chile, Book of Abstracts, 90 (abstract P50).

Indig, G.L. (2001). Invited Talk “Chemical Aspects of Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy” Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland – Baltimore County, Maryland, IL (host, Prof. L.A. Kelly).

Indig, G.L.; Bartlett, J.A.; Lewis, L.M.; Kandela, I.K. (2001). Invited Talk “Chemical Aspects of Mitochondrial Targeting in Photochemotherapy” XII Inter-American Photochemical Society Conference, Cordoba, Argentina, Book of Abstracts, XLII-XLIII.

Indig, G.L.; Bartlett, J.A.; Lewis, L.M. (2001). Invited Talk “Molecular Exciton Effects on Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of Biopolymer-Dye Complexes” Interamerican Workshop on Photochemistry, Photophysics and Spectroscopy in Organized Media”, Cordoba, Argentina, Book of Abstracts, 31 (abstract L20).

Indig, G.L. (2001). Invited Talk “Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy that Provides for Highly Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells and Minimizes the Role of Oxygen on Photosensitization” The 4th International Meeting on Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products, Research Triangle Park, NC, Conference Book, Technical Session 1, page 33.

Indig, G.L. (2001). Invited Lecture “Basic Principles in Pharmaceutical Photostability Testing” Short Course on Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products, The 4th International Meeting on Photostability of Drugs and Drug Products, Research Triangle Park, NC, Course Book, Lecture 1, page 4.

Indig, G.L., Bartlett, J.A., Lewis, L.M. (2001). Invited Talk “Effect of Self-Association and Biopolymer Binding on the Photonuclease/Photoprotease Activity of Triarylmethane Photosensitizers” The 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Chicago, IL, Book of Abstracts, 89 (abstract 269).

Oliveira, C.S.; Indig, G.L.; Baptista, M.S. (2001). Poster “Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of Crystal Violet in Reversed Micelles” XII Inter-American Photochemical Society Conference, Cordoba, Argentina, Book of Abstracts, 68.

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2001). Poster “Enzymatic Synthesis of New Cationic Photosensitizers” The 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Chicago, IL, Book of Abstracts, 46 (abstract 138).

Branco, K.P.; Oliveira, C.S.; Indig, G.L.; Baptista, M.S. (2001). Poster “Characterization of Triarylmethane Dymers and Ion-Pairs in Solution and in Restricted Reaction Spaces” The 30th Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Caxambu, Brazil, Book of Abstracts, abstract Q-10.

Oliveira, C.S.; Indig, G.L.; Baptista, M.S. (2001). Poster “Spectroscopic Characterization of the Spacial Distribution of Crystal Violet in Reversed Micelles” The 30th Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Caxambu, Brazil, Book of Abstracts, abstract Q-09.

Kandela, I.K.; Bartlett, J.A.; Mellon, W.S.; Indig, G.L. (2001). Poster “New Cationic Photosensitizers for the Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells Via Mitochondrial Targeting” The 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Chicago, IL, Book of Abstracts, 46 (abstract 139).

Indig, G.L. (2001). Invited Talk “Chemical Aspects of Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy” Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA (host, Prof. G. Jones II).

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2001). Contributed Talk “Mechanisms of Action of Crystal Violet in Photodynamic Therapy” The 33rdPharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Madison, WI, Book of Abstracts, 123 (abstract PM02).

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2001). Contributed Talk “Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Photosensitizer-LDL Complexes” The 33rdPharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Madison, WI, Book of Abstracts, 138 (abstract PM17).

Kandela, I.K.; Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2001). Poster “New Triarylmethane Photosensitizers for the Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells Via Mitochondrial Targeting” The 33rd Pharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Madison, WI, Book of abstracts, 89 (abstract PS37).

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Poster “Photoinduced Inactivation of Hexokinase and DNA by Triarylmethane Dyes” The XVIII IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry, Dresden, Germany, Book of Abstracts, 308-309.

Lewis, L.M.; Bartlett, J.A.; Amin, K.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Contributed Talk “Mechanisms of Phototoxicity of Triarylmethane Dyes Towards Model Mitochondrial Targets” The 13th International Congress on Photobiology, San Francisco, CA, Book of Abstracts, 29 (abstract 89).

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Poster “Effect of Transition Dipole Moment Orientation on the Photoreactivity of Dye Aggregates”The 13th International Congress on Photobiology, San Francisco, CA, Book of Abstracts, 29 (abstract 90).

Indig, G.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Nichols, M.G.; Bartlett, J.A.; Mellon, W.S.; Sieber, F. (2000). PosterTriarylmethane Dyes as Therapeutic Agents for the Photochemical Purging of Autologous Bone Marrow Grafts from Residual Tumor Cells” The 44thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, New Orleans, LA, Biophysical Journal, 78, 256A (abstract 1515).

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Poster and Contributed Talk“Synthesis Of New Triarylmethane Dyes Via HRP-Catalyzed Oxidations”Annual Meeting of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, Indianapolis, IN, CD of Abstracts, abstract 3234.

Indig G.L. (2000). Invited Talk “Photochemical Purging of Bone Marrow Grafts from Residual Tumor Cells. Effect of Molecular Structure on Photosensitization Efficacy and Tumor Cell Selectivity” Theratechnologies, Inc., Montreal, Canada (host, Dr. R.E. Jastimi).

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Poster “Photoinactivation of Model Mitochondrial Targets by Triarylmethane Dyes”Annual Meeting of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, Indianapolis, IN, CD of Abstracts, abstract 3302.

Indig G.L. (2000). Invited Talk “Chemical Aspects of Mitochondrial Targeting in Photodynamic Therapy” Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL (host, Prof. E.R. Gaillard).

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Poster “Enzymatic Synthesis of New Cationic Triarylmethane Dyes” The 30th Pharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Columbus, OH, Book of Abstracts, 99 (abstract PS 65).

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2000). Poster “Photoinactivation of Model Subcellular Targets by Triarylmethane Dyes”The 30th Pharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Columbus, OH, Book of Abstracts, 105 (abstract PS 71).

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (1999). Poster “Effect of Self-Association on the Photochemical Reactivity of Triarylmethane Dyes in Aqueous Solution” The 31st Pharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Kansas City, MO, Book of Abstracts, abstract PS-19.

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (1999). Poster “Characterization of Noncovalent Complexes of Triatylmethane Dyes and Low Density Lipoprotein”The 31st Pharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Kansas City, MO, Book of Abstracts, abstract PS-30.

Indig, G.L., Bartlett, J.A.; Lewis, L.M. (1999). Contributed Talk “Effect of Self-Association and Protein Binding on the Photoreactivity of Triarylmethane Dyes” The 27st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Washington, DC, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 69(S), 78 (abstract WPM-E10).

Indig G.L. (1998). Invited Talk “Photosensitization in Restricted Reaction Spaces: Effect of Protein Binding on Mechanisms of Action of Triarylmethane Dyes”Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (host, Prof. J.B. Simeonsson).

Indig, G.L. (1998). Invited Talk “Photosensitization in Restricted Reaction Spaces: Effect of Protein Binding on Mechanisms of Action of Triarylmethanes” International Meeting on Singlet Molecular Oxygen. Chemical, Biological and Medical Aspects, Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, Book of Abstracts, pp 26-27.

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (1998). Poster “Effect of Self-Association on the Photochemical Reactivity of Triarylmethane Dyes in Aqueous Solution” International Meeting on Singlet Molecular Oxygen. Chemical, Biological and Medical Aspects, Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, Book of Abstracts, p 68.

Jimenez, J.A.C.; Jones, G. II; Indig, G.L. (1998). Poster “Interaction of Organic Dyes with Humic Acids” The 216thNational Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, MA, Division of Physical Chemistry, Book of Abstracts, abstract 315.

Indig, G.L.; Lewis, L.M.; Baptista, M.S.; Amin, K. (1998). Contributed Talk “Mechanisms of Photosensitization in Restricted Reaction Spaces. Effect of Protein Binding on the Photoreactivity of Triarylmethanes” The 26st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, Snowbird, UT, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 67(S), 94 (abstract WPM-E4).

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (1998). Poster “Binding of Triarylmethane Dyes to Human Low Density Lipoproteins” The 31st Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Milwaukee, WI, Book of Abstracts, abstract 281.

Amin, K.; Indig, G.L. (1998). Poster “Mechanisms of Photoinactivation of Enzymes Mediated by Ethyl Violet”The 31st Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Milwaukee, WI, Book of Abstracts, abstract 280.

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (1998). Poster “Photophysics of N-N’-Bis(2-ethyl-1,3-Dioxolane) Kryptocyanine in Solution and in Glass of Sucrose Octaacetate” The 31stGreat Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Milwaukee, WI, Book of Abstracts, abstract 279.

Amin, K.; Baptista, M.S.; Indig, G.L. (1998). Poster “Mechanisms of Photoinactivation of Enzymes Mediated by Triarylmethane Dyes”The 42ndAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, Kansas City, MO, Biophysical Journal, 74(2), A367 (abstract Th-Pos121).

Indig, G.L. (1998).Invited Talk “Mechanisms of Action of Dyes Employed in Photodynamic Therapy” Institute of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (host, Prof. M.S. Baptista).

Amin, K.; Indig, G.L. (1997). Poster “Bleaching of Triarylmethane Dyes Promoted by Horseradish Peroxidase”The XVII Midwest Enzyme Chemistry Conference, Chicago, IL, Book of Abstracts, p. 43.

Baptista, M.S.; Indig, G.L. (1997). Poster “Effect of BSA-Binding on Photochemical Properties of Triarylmethane Dyes” Gordon Conference on Organic Photochemistry, Newport, RI.

Indig, G.L.; Lewis, L.M; Baptista, M.S. (1997). Poster “Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Victoria Blue Dyes and Other Triarylmethanes Bound to Serum Proteins” The 25 thAnnual Meeting of the American Society for Photobiology, St. Louis, MO, Photochemistry and Photobiology 65(S), 24 (abstract SPM-G11).

Ehlert, D.A.; Kavalauskas, M.P.; Indig, G.L. (1997). Poster "Entrapment of Styryl-7 into the Cavity of Horse Spleen Apoferritin”The 41stAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, New Orleans, LA, Biophysical Journal, 72(2), A316 (abstract W-Pos390).

Anderson, G.B.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Poster "Photoreactivity of Crystal Violet Bound to Low Density Lipoproteins”The 212thNational Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Orlando, FL, Division of Physical Chemistry, Book of Abstracts, abstract 275.

Ehlert, D.A.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Poster "Entrapment of Styryl-7 into the Cavity of Horse Spleen Ferritin”The Pfizer Undergraduate Fellows Summer Research Program, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT.

Anderson, G.B.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Contributed Talk "Photoreactivity of Triarylmethane Dyes Bound to Low Density Lipoproteins.” The 28th Pharmaceutics Graduate Student Research Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, Book of Abstracts, abstract PD-A15.

Kavalauskas, M.P.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Poster“Development of a Multipurpose Optical Table for Studies in Photochemistry and Photophysics”1996 Madison Conference on the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madison, WI.

Anderson, G.B.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Poster "Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Host-Guest Complexes of Photosensitizers with Low-Density Lipoproteins”1996 Madison Conference on the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madison, WI.

Anderson, G.B.; Arruda, M.V.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Poster "Binding of Triarylmethane Dyes to Proteins: Enhanced Fluorescence Quantum Yield and Photoreactivity”The 40thAnnual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, Baltimore, MD, Biophysical Journal, 70(2), A211 (abstract M-Pos339).

Arruda, M.V.; Desai, G.V.; Indig, G.L. (1996). Contributed Talk "Mechanisms of Photodecomposition of Triarylmethane Dyes Bound to Bovine Serum Albumin”The Pittsburgh Conference, Chicago, IL, Book of Abstracts, abstract 1138.

Indig, G.L.; Arruda, M.V. (1996). Contributed Talk "Photochemistry of Triarylmethane Dyes Bound to Proteins”Photonics West, San Jose, CA, BiOS’ 96 Technical Abstract Digest, p. 57.

Indig, G.L. (1995). Invited Talk “Mechanisms of Action of Dyes and Pigments Employed in Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors” Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (host, Prof. D.H. Rich).

Indig, G.L. (1995). Poster "Oxidation of Isobutyraldehyde Catalyzed by Horseradish Peroxidase. Effect of additives on Chemiluminescence Yield”The XV Midwest Enzyme Chemistry Conference, Chicago, IL, Book of Abstracts, p. 24.

Pre-Historic Years

PIs: G. Cilento (U. of São Paulo), T. Wilson (Harvard U.), J.J. Grabowski (Harvard U.), G. Jones II (Boston U.)

Jones II, G.; Indig, G.L. (1994). Invited Talk"The Interaction of Organic Dyes with Humic Acids: Characterization of Biopolymer Binding Domains"The 208thNational Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., Division of Environmental Chemistry, abstract 64, and Book of Preprints of Papers, pp 538-540.

Arruda, M.V.; Indig, G.L. (1994). Poster"On the Mechanism of Dye Bleaching Upon Laser Excitation of Malachite Green Bound to Bovine Serum Albumin" The 24rdNortheast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Burlington, VT, Book of Abstracts, abstract 230.

Jones, II, G.; Feng, Z.; Indig, G.L. (1994). Poster"Solubilization and Binding of Amino-anthraquinone Dyes in Aqueous Polyelectrolytes. Fluorescence Reporters of Polymer Microdomains" The 24thNortheast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Burlington, VT, Book of Abstracts, abstract 173.

Indig, G.L.; Jones, II, G. (1993).Poster "Photophysical Properties of Styryl-7 in Solution, Free and Bound to Cyclodextrins and Poly (Methacrylic Acid)" The 23rdNortheast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, MA, Book of Abstracts, abstract 239.

Indig, G.L.; Jones, II, G.; Hruzewicz, W.N. (1993).Poster"Preparation of Model Humic Acids from 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine" The 23rdNortheast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Boston, MA, Book of Abstracts, abstract 99.

Hruzewicz, W.N.; Jones, II, G.; Indig, G.L. (1993).Poster"On the Photodecomposition of Trichloroethylene in Aqueous Humic Acid Solutions" The 205thNational Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Denver, CO, Division of Chemical Education, Book of Abstracts, abstract 135.

Hruzewicz, W.N.; Jones, II, G.; Indig, G.L. (1993).Poster "Study of Photodecomposition of Trichloroethylene in Aqueous Solutions of Humic Materials and in Presence of Model -Donor Systems" Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, MA. Physical Sciences, Book of Abstracts, abstract 262.

Indig, G.L.; Catalani, L.H.; Wilson, T. (1992).Poster "Quenching of Triplet Acetone by Mesitylene or Durene. Energy Transfer or Exciplex Formation?” 204thNational Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. Division of Physical Chemistry, Book of Abstracts, abstract 133.

Indig, G.L. (1992).Poster "Effect of Xanthene Dyes and Anthracene Derivatives on the Chemi-luminescence of the Fenton Reaction Driven by Ascorbate" The 22ndNortheast Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Syracuse, NY, Book of Abstracts, abstract 207.

Indig, G.L.; Wilson, T. (1991).Poster "Lifetime and Concentration Quenching of Triplet Methylbenzenes in Solution, Using a Fluorescence Probe"The Fourth Chemical Congress of North America, New York, NY. Division of Physical Chemistry, Book of Abstracts, abstract 265.

Indig, G.L.; Grabowski, J.J. (1991).Poster "On the Mechanism of Malachite Green Assisted Laser Inactivation of Proteins" Gordon Conference on Organic Photochemistry, Andover, NH.

Indig, G.L.; Wilson, T. (1991).Poster "Lifetime and Concentration Quenching of Triplet Methylbenzenes in Solution"Gordon Conference on Organic Photochemistry, Andover, NH.

Indig, G.L.; Catalani, L.H.; Wilson, T. (1990).Poster "Solvent Effects on the Formation of Triplet Exciplexes of Acetone and Mesitylene or Durene”XIII Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemical Society, Caxambu, MG, Brazil. Book of Abstracts, p. 88.

Villablanca, M.; Slawinska, D.; Slawinski, J.; Indig, G.L. (1989).Contributed Talk"Chemiexcitation and Luminescence in the Oxidative Transformation of l-Dopa to Eumelanins" First Meeting of the European Society for Pigment Cell Research, Sorrento, Italy. Pigment Cell Research 1(4), p. 266.

Indig, G.L.; Campa, A.; Cilento, G; Bechara, E.J.H. (1988).Poster "Lipid Peroxidation Initiated by Triplet Acetone" XI Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemical Society, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Ciência e Cultura40(7), supplement, p. 501.

Indig, G.L.; Campa, A.; Cilento, G; Bechara, E.J.H. (1988).Contributed Talk "Triplet Acetone Can Initiate Lipid Peroxidation" The Fourth Biennial General Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research, Kyoto, Japan. Book of Abstracts, p. 352.

Indig, G.L.; Campa, A.; Cilento, G; Bechara, E.J.H. (1988).Contributed Talk "Tetramethyl-dioxetane generated triplet Acetone Induces Lipid Peroxidation" II Latin-American Meeting on Photochemistry and Photobiology, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Book of Abstracts, pp. 144-145.

Villablanca, M.; Indig, G.L.; Slawinska, D.; Slawinski, J.; Cilento, G. (1987).Poster"Studies on the Generation of Excited Species and Energy Transfer in Enzymatic and Autoxidative Transformations of l-Dopa into Eumelanins”XVI Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Biochemical Society, Caxambu, MG, Brazil. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia30(1), supplement, p. 22.

Cilento, G.; Campa, A.; Guillo, L.A.; Bohne, C.; Nascimento, A.L.T.O.; Villablanca, M.; Indig, G.L.; Brunetti, I.L. (1986).Invited Talk"Electronically Excited States in Biological Systems”V Workshop Brazil-Chile on Bioorganic Chemistry, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Book of Abstracts, pp. 202-204.

Indig, G.L.; Cilento, G. (1986).Poster and Contributed Talk"Electronically-Excited Species Generated by Peroxidase Catalyzed Oxidation of Short Chain Nitroalkanes" XV Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Biochemical Society, Caxambu, MG, Brazil. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia29(1), supplement, p. 114.

Indig, G.L.; Cilento, G. (1986).Poster "Quenching of Triplet Acetone and 9,10-dibromoanthracene-2-sulfonate optically excited by nitrite and nitrate ions"III Brazilian Informal Meeting of Photochemistry and Photobiology, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Book of Abstracts, pp. 6-7.

Indig, G.L.; Cilento, G. (1985).Poster"Electronically-Excited Species Generated by Peroxidase Catalyzed Oxidation of 2-Nitropropane" XIV Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Biochemical Society, Caxambu, MG, Brazil. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia28(1), supplement, p. 109.

Cilento, G.; Campa, A.; Nascimento, A.L.T.O.; Bohne, C.; Indig, G.L.; Brunetti, I.L.; Guilo, L.A.; Nassi, L.; Villablanca, M.; Baptista, R.C.; Baader, W.J. (1984).Invited Talk"Electronically-Excited States in Biological Systems" III Workshop Brazil-Chile on Bioorganic Chemistry, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Book of Abstracts, pp. 101-104.

Publications and Patents (Top)

Cho, H.; Cho, C.S.; Indig, G.L.; Lavasanifar, A.; Vakili, M.R.; Kwon, G.S. (2014). “Polymeric Micelles for Apoptosis-Targeted Optical Imaging of Cancer and Intraoperative Surgical Guidance" PLOS ONE, 9 (2), e89968.

Cho, H.; Indig, G.L.; Weichert, J.; Shin, H.C.; Kwon, G.S. (2012). “In Vivo Cancer Imaging by poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) Micelles Containing a Near-Infrared Probe" Nanomedicine-Nanotechnology Biology and Medicine, 8, 228-236.  

Indig, G. L. (2012). "Pigments and Method of Making Pigments." United States Patent Application number 20120156151; published on June 21, 2012.

Oliveira, C.C.; Turchiello, R.; Kowaltoski, A.J.; Indig, G.L.; Baptista, M.S. (2011). "Major Determinants of Photoinduced Cell Death: Subcellular Localization Versus Photosensitization Efficiency" Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 51, 824-833.

Belostotsky, I.; da Silva, S.M.; Paez, M.G.; Indig, G.L. (2011). “Mitochondrial Targeting for Photochemotherapy. Can Selective Tumor Cell Killing be Predicted Based on n-Octanol/Water Distribution Coefficients?” Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 86, 302-314.

Stein, E.M.; Andreguetti, D.X.; Rocha, C.S.; Fujii, M.T.; Baptista, M.S.; Colepicolo, P.; Indig, G.L. (2011). “Search for Cytotoxic Agents in Multiple Laurencia Complex Seaweed Species (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) Harvested From the Atlantic Ocean With Emphasis on the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 21, 239-243.

Indig, G.L. (2009). “Pharmaceutical Photochemistry-Introduction to the Symposium in Print” Photochemistry and Photobiology, 85, 847-847.

Indig, G. L. (2005). “Triarylmethane Derivatives and Their Use as Photochemotherapeutic Agents” United States Patent number US 6,914,078 B2, issued on 7/5/05.

Lacerda, S.H.D.; Abraham, B.; Stringfellow, T.C.; Indig, G.L. (2005). “Photophysical, Photochemical, and Tumor-Selectivity Properties of Bromine Derivatives of Rhodamine-123” Photochemistry and Photobiology, 81, 1430-1438.

Indig, G. L. (2004). “Use of Crystal Violet as Phototherapeutic Agent” United States Patent Application number 20040175368, published on September 9, 2004.

Kandela, I.K.; Lee, W. Indig, G.L. (2003). “Effect of the Lipophilic/Hydrophilic Character of Cationic Triarylmethane Dyes on their Selective Phototoxicity Toward Tumor Cells” Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 78, 157-169.

Kandela, I.K.; Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (2002). “Effect of Molecular Structure on the Selective Phototoxicity of Triarylmethane Dyes Towards Tumor Cells” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 1, 309-314.

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2002). “Effect of Dye Aggregation on Triarylmethane-Mediated Photoinduced Damage of Hexokinase and DNA” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 67, 139-148.

Oliveira, C.S.; Branco, K.P.; Baptista, M.S.; Indig, G.L. (2002). “Solvent and Concentration Effects on the Visible Spectra of Tri-Para-Dialkylamino-Substituted Triarylmethane Dyes in Liquid Solutions” Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 58, 2971-2982.

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2001). “Photonuclease Activity of Mitochondrial Triarylmethane Photosensitizers”Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters, 11, 22-25.

Indig, G.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Nichols, M.G.; Bartlett, J.A.; Mellon, W.S.; Sieber, F. (2000). “Effect of Molecular Structure on the Performance of Triarylmethane Dyes as Therapeutic Agents for Photochemical Purging of Autologous Bone Marrow Grafts from Residual Tumor Cells” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 89, 88-99.

Lewis, L.M.; Indig, G.L. (2000). “Solvent Effects on the Spectroscopic Properties of Triarylmethane Dyes” Dyes and Pigments, 46, 145-154.

Kowaltowski, A.J.; Turin, J.; Indig, G.L.; Vercesi, A.E. (1999). “Mitochondrial Effects of Triarylmethane Dyes” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 31, 579-588.

Indig, G.L. (1999).“Mechanisms of Action of Cationic Dyes in Photodynamic Therapy of Tumors” Recent Research Developments in Pure and Applied Chemistry, 3, 9-19.

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (1999). “Effect of Self-Association and Protein Binding on the Photochemical Reactivity of Triarylmethanes. Implications of Noncovalent Interactions on the Competition between Photosensitization Mechanisms Type I and Type II” Photochemistry and Photobiology, 70, 490-498.

Bartlett, J.A.; Indig, G.L. (1999). “Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Malachite Green Noncovalently Bound to Bovine Serum Albumin” Dyes and Pigments, 43, 219-226.

Baptista, M.S.; Indig, G.L. (1998). “Effect of BSA-Binding on Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of Triarylmethane Dyes” Journal of Physical Chemistry, 102B, 4678-4688.

Baptista, M.S.; Indig, G.L. (1997). “Mechanism of Photobleaching of Ethyl Violet Non-Covalently Bound to Bovine Serum Albumin” Chemical Communications, 18, 1791-1792.

Indig, G.L. (1997). “Mechanism of Dye Bleaching upon Laser Excitation of Crystal Violet Bound to Bovine Serum Albumin.” Chemistry Letters, 3, 243-244.

Indig, G.L. (1996). “Photochemistry of Triarylmethane Dyes Bound to Proteins” Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2675, 228-237.

Jones, II, G.; Indig, G.L. (1996). "Spectroscopic and Chemical Binding Properties of Humic Acids in Water" New Journal of Chemistry, 20, 221-232.

Jones, II, G.; Oh, C.; Indig, G.L. (1994). "Organic Dyes Bound to Polyelectrolytes: Photophysical Probes of Binding Domains and Biopolymer Conformation" In Environmental Aspects of Surface and Aquatic Photochemistry, Crosby, D.; Zepp, R.; Held, G. R., Eds., Lewis Publishers: Chelsea, Michigan, 129-136.

Indig, G.L.; Jay, D.G.; Grabowski, J.J. (1992). "The Efficiency of Malachite Green, Free and Protein Bound, as a Photon-to-Heat Converter"Biophysical Journal, 61, 631-638.

Indig, G.L.; Catalani, L.H.; Wilson, T. (1992). "Quenching of Triplet Acetone by Mesitylene or Durene: Energy Transfer or Exciplex Formation?" Journal of Physical Chemistry, 96, 8967-8973.

Indig, G.L.; Wilson, T. (1992). "Triplet Lifetime and Concentration Quenching of Methylbenzenes in Solution" Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 63, 195-199.

Indig, G.L.; Campa, A.; Bechara, E. J. H.; Cilento, G. (1990). "Triplet Acetone Can Initiate Lipid Peroxidation" In Medical, Biochemical and Chemical Aspects of Free Radicals,Hayaishi, O.; Niki, E.; Kondo, M.; Yoshikawa, T., Eds., Elsevier: Amsterdam, 981-984.

Villablanca, M.; Indig, G.L.; Slawinska, D.; Slawinski, J. (1989). "Studies on Chemiluminescence in the Enzymatic and Autoxidative Transformation of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine into Eumelanins" Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 3, 181-190.

Indig, G.L.; Campa, A.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Cilento, G. (1988). "Conjugated Diene Formation Promoted by Triplet Acetone Acting Upon Arachidonic Acid" Photochemistry andPhotobiology, 48, 719-723.

Indig, G.L.; Cilento, G. (1987). "Peroxidase-Promoted Aerobic Oxidation of 2-Nitropropane: Mechanism of Excited State Formation"Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 923, 347-354.