Course Descriptions - Fall 2007

Philosophy 101, Introduction to Philosophy:, HU
LEC 404, MW 10:00-10:50, MER 131
LEC 405, MW 1:00-1:50, ACL 120
Instructor: Robert Schwartz,
Enrollment in one of the large lectures requires enrollment in a discussion section.

The capacity to raise questions about the nature, meaning, and quality of our own lives is one of the distinctive features of human existence. In this course we will examine several such questions. The sorts of issues to be considered are: Is there any basis for belief in God? If God is good, why is there so much evil in the world? What is it to have a mind, and are humans unique in having them? Might computers really think? Is human behavior governed by the same laws of nature that hold of everything else in the physical world? Are ethical and value claims objective? How might they be justified? Is it in our best interest to be moral? Can the state justify killing those who violate its laws?

Philosophy 101, Introduction to Philosophy:, HU
LEC 001, M 6:30-9:10, CRT 309
LEC 002, R 6:30-9:10, CRT 309
LEC 006, T 6:30-9:10, Room TBA
LEC 007, W 6:30-9:10, Room TBA Instructor: 001 & 007, Daniel Corbett Instructor: 002 & 006, TBA

We will look at a representative selection of topics from the history of philosophy and current philosophical debates: ethics, social and political philosophy, the scope and nature of our knowledge of the world, the nature of the self and mind.

Philosophy 111, Informal Logic: Critical Reasoning, HU
LEC 001, MW 9:30-10:45, Room TBA
LEC 002, MW 12:30-1:45, Room TBA
Instructor: Karl Steldt,

Aside from being a body of knowledge in its own right, logic is an instrument for acquiring understanding. As such it is not specific to any subject matter. The principles of logic are applicable to the various sciences, art, religion, law, ethics, politics, and business. For the student who works in any of the foregoing areas, the study of logic is essential.

This course is devoted to a range of topics central to logic. People make claims and defend them with reasons, which together are referred to as arguments. The first order of business is to learn to identify arguments and to recognize how their structure is indicated in ordinary discourse. Second, meaning and linguistic usage underlie the determination of truth. In this connection distinctions are drawn between different kinds of definition, and rules are laid down for constructing and evaluating definitions. A third topic is that of informal fallacies. Some arguments are good and some are bad, and fallacies are by definition bad arguments. Since these are all too often mistaken for good arguments, being able to recognize common varieties of fallacies is a useful skill. Next on the agenda is deduction. The relation between truth and validity is considered. Some immediate inferences that have traditionally been recognized are covered, along with a number of elementary forms of deductive arguments. A procedure is established for testing a certain kind of deductive argument, the categorical syllogism, for validity and invalidity. The last part of the course is devoted to a study of inductive arguments. Here the focus is on arguments by analogy, causal reasoning, and scientific explanation.

Philosophy 192, Freshman Seminar: Voices of Ancient and Modern Philosophy, HU
SEM 001, MW 3:30-4:45, CRT 607
Instructor: Richard Tierney,

Philosophical questions are timeless. Not because they have no answers - they certainly do have answers - but because their answers depend on how we understand the questions. Philosophy is an activity by which we acquire understanding, and the activity is timeless. The ancient and modern philosophers asked many of the same questions that philosophers ask today. And, in many ways, they gave much the same answers. But their activity has an added freshness and liveliness to it, because they are often coming to understand what the questions are - for the 'first time'. We are going to engage in this activity directly with some of the ancient and modern philosophers, and consider such issues as: the underlying nature of reality; knowledge and belief; mind and soul; and how we should live. We may not arrive at definitive answers - at least not quite yet - but perhaps we shall better understand exactly what we do not know. FRESHMAN ONLY

Philosophy 204, Introduction to Asian Religions, HU
LEC 001, MW 9:30-10:45, CRT 309
LEC 402, MW 11:00-11:50, END 103
Instructor: James Lewis,
Enrollment in the large lecture (LEC 402) Philosophy 204 requires enrollment in a small discussion section.

Emphasis in this course will be upon the philosophy and worldviews-the nature of the universe, human destiny, the problem of evil, etc.-of several forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, though some attention will also be given to Taoism and to a few contemporary Western new religions influenced by Asian religions. From time to time, representatives of these traditions will be invited in to dialog with the class.

Philosophy 207, Religion and Science, HU
LEC 001, TR 5:00-6:15, CRT 309
Instructor: David Luce,
An entry-level course (no prerequisites). Topics and reading chosen for minimal overlap with other existing courses and maximal relevance for the pressing issues of our time.

Straight thinking and sloppy thinking about religion and science. A conservative evangelical theologian who urges Christians to return to their Biblical roots (Karl Barth) turns out to be one of the straight thinkers, and an eminent philosopher and historian of science (Norwood Russell Hanson) proves himself one of the sloppiest.

And a well-known advocate of the so-called "identity" theory of the mind-body relation (J.J.C. Smart), writing on the question of survival after death and presuming a conflict between science and religion on that issue, reveals that he hasn't read the relevant literature.

Picking and choosing from the Bible exactly what one wants to believe: Creationists reject evolution but allow that the earth moves like a planet; Conservatives quote Leviticus against gay rights but ignore Isaiah's insistent call for justice. We are obliged to look at the general question of the role of authority in moral decision-making.

Philosophy 211, Elementary Logic, HU
LEC 403, MW 10:00-10:50, BUS N146
LEC 404, MW 12:00-12:50, MER 131
Instructor (403/404): Jonathan Lang
Enrollment in one of the large lectures (LEC 403/404) also requires enrollment in a corresponding discussion section.

LEC 001, M 6:30-9:10, Room TBA
Instructor : Brandon Biggerstaff,

LEC 002, R 6:30-9:10, Room TBA
Instructor: James Lee,

The Island of Knights and Knaves is a place where only Knights and Knaves live. A Knight is a person who always tells the truth. Knaves, on the other hand, never tell the truth. Harry, who lives on the island, says: "If I am a Knight, then I'll eat my hat." Did you know that you can prove from the above information that Harry will eat his hat? Did you know: 1) Given that Sarah loves either Jim or Tom and that if she loves Jim then she loves Tom, you can prove that she loves Tom? 2) that if everyone loves a lover and there is even one lover in the world, then everyone loves everyone? Learn how to solve these and other puzzles in Philosophy 211, where we will study formal deductive logic -- the science of what follows from what.

The concepts and techniques encountered in the study of deductive logic are of central importance to any analysis of argument and inference. They reflect fundamental patterns of proof found in science and mathematics, they underlie the programs that enable computers to "reason" logically, and they provide tools for characterizing the formal structures of language. This is an introductory course intended for students who have had no previous work in logic. There will be 3 exams and weekly homework assignments.

Philosophy 217, Introduction to Metaphysics, HU
LEC 001, TR 11:00-12:15, Room TBA
Instructor: Robert Wallace,

The course deals with the nature of metaphysical thinking and the issues arising from such thinking. Representative philosophers from ancient, medieval and modern philosophy are dealt with at length, e.g., Plato's Phaedo, Avicenna's identity theory and metaphysical scheme, Descartes' Meditation, and Hume's Dialogues concerning Natural Religion.

Philosophy 232,Topics in Philosophy: Philosophical Aspects of Socialism , HU
LEC 001, MW 2:00-3:15, Room TBA
Instructor: Dennis Casper,

This course is intended to introduce the student to some perspectives on and assessments of socialism: its definition; various models of socialism both tried and untried, and what it might still promise with respect to a range of fundamental human concerns and practices including freedom, equality, democracy, community, efficiency, religion, science and technology, art and culture; and what new avenues for socialist practice and new conceptions of the socialist project should be considered in the light of the socialist experience of the twentieth century and the current capitalist context. After a brief look at some early forms of socialism, the first half of the course will concentrate on a survey of the philosophy of Karl Marx, the dominant thinker in the socialist tradition, outlining his analysis and critique of capitalism and his understanding of such concepts as class, human nature, alienation, freedom, social and historical change, among others. The second half will focus on contemporary discussions of the topics mentioned above.

Philosophy 232, Topics in Philosophy: New Religions and the Cult Controversy, HU
LEC 004, M 5:00-7:40pm, CRT 175
Instructor: James Lewis,

New Religions emerged as a field of study in the 1970s when "cults" became a hot public issue. It became established field by the 1990s in the wake of a series of tragedies involving small alternative religious groups- the Branch Davidian siege, the Solar Temple murder-suicides, the AUM Shinrikyo subway gassings, and the Heavens Gate suicides. This course will survey the most prominent New Religions, the cult controversy, and New Religions as a field of study.

Philosophy 232, Topics in Philosophy: Reading Nietzsche, HU
LEC 006, TR 11:00am-12:30pm, CRT 309
Instructor: Garrett Bredeson,

Hate it or love it, the pure power of Nietzsche's thought is undeniable. Few thinkers in modern Europe can match him with regard to the scope of his vision, the (sometimes infuriating) peculiarity of his style, or the persistent radicalness of his thought. In this introductory course we will forge an encounter with this thinker by carefully working through three of his most important works—The Gay Science, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, and On the Genealogy of Morals. In so doing we will find ourselves amidst some of Nietzsche's most challenging thoughts, such as the will to power, the Overman, the death of God, the eternal recurrence of the same, and nihilism. By weaving these themes together we will try to come to grips with Nietzsche's vision, both frightening and exhilarating, of the existential crisis facing modern humanity. No previous knowledge of philosophy will be required.

Philosophy 241, Introductory Ethics, HU
LEC 401, MW 11:00-11:50, BOL B56
Enrollment in Philosophy 241 also requires enrolling in a corresponding discussion section.
Instructor: Julius Sensat,

We shall study three basic approaches in moral philosophy: ethical rationalism, which takes moral principles to describe an independent order of values fixed in the nature of things, the ideal-spectator approach, which takes morally wrong actions to be those an impartial sympathetic observer would disapprove of, and contractualism, according to which the correct moral principles are those which would be agreed to by all reasonable beings as a basis for their community. We shall see how the second approach leads naturally to utilitarianism, while contractualism has important sources in Immanuel Kant's moral philosophy. We shall see how the three basic approaches get reflected in theories of social and economic justice.

Philosophy 244, Ethical Issues in Health Care: Contemporary Problems, HU
LEC 101, R 6:00-8:40*
Instructor: Kristin Tym,

This course will provide a general overview of many of the challenging ethical issues faced in health care delivery today. We will begin the course with an introduction of ethical theories and other approaches to moral decision-making. These theories and approaches will then be applied to ethical problems currently confronting health care providers, patients and their families, and society at large. Issues we will consider include informed consent and confidentiality, futility and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, euthanasia and assisted suicide, assisted reproduction, genetics, allocation of scarce resources and research ethics.

*This course is taught off-campus at the Milwaukee County Mental Health Complex, 9455 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee.

Philosophy 245,Critical Thinking and the Law: Law of Torts, HU
LEC 101, M 6:30-9:10pm*
Instructor: Paul Santilli,

The goals of critical legal thinking are to instill in the student an understanding of the fundamental principles of legal analysis, problem solving and construction of an argument. In order to convey these principles in this class, students are taught the law of torts (why I get to sue you when you hit me with your car). Materials we will use to learn the law and critical thinking include legal cases (text) and jury instructions. It is through the study of law that teachers hope to impart to their students a system for analytical thinking which they may use in their everyday lives.

*This course is taught off-campus at the School of Continuing Education, 161 W. Wisconsin Ave, Room 7230.

Philosophy 250, Philosophy of Religion, HU
LEC 001, T 6:30-9:10, CRT 309
Instructor: Michelle Mahlik,

One of the most intriguing and controversial philosophical issues is the human religious experience. By requiring us to replace passion with reason, philosophy provides us with a methodology to examine this contentious but inherently interesting topic. This course will examine various philosophical perspectives on such issues as: the arguments for God's existence, the problem of evil, the nature of religious experience, religious pluralism, the possibility of human free will, and the rationality of religious faith.

Philosophy 250, Philosophy of Religion, HU
LEC 403, MW 12:00-12:50, END 103
Instructor: James Lewis,
Enrollment in LEC 403 requires enrolling in a corresponding discussion section.

We shall analyze and discuss (a) some of the traditional arguments for the existence of God (the cosmological, teleological, and ontological arguments), (b) the so-called problem of Evil, (c) the question whether or not God's omniscience and human freedom are mutually consistent, (d) Pas-cal's Wager and William James, and (e) the question of human immortality.

Philosophy 253, Philosophy of the Arts, HU
LEC 001, MW 11:00-12:15, CRT 309
Instructor: Michelle Mahlik,

Art differs from nature in being a human creation, and as our own creation art has something to say about how we view our selves, our world, and our relationship to the world. An objective of this course is to examine philosophically the nature of art and its relation to individuals and their environment.

How do we distinguish works of art from natural objects? Is art merely an imitation of the natural world? Do works of art have intrinsic meaning, or do they have no meaning at all? Is the value of a work of art merely a matter of subjective judgment? Are there specific criteria by which to judge works of art? Are we to define art in terms of form, expressiveness, artistic intention, or social role? Is there a relationship between beauty and moral goodness?

In this course, we will consider these questions and the answers provided by a variety of philosophers and artists, both ancient and modern. Although an interest in art is recommended, this course requires no previous experience in art or philosophy.

Philosophy 272-001 The Life and Death of Socrates, HU
LEC 001, MW 12:30-1:45, CRT 309 (9/4-10/6)
Instructor: Margaret Atherton,
Note: This course or courses offers an opportunity to earn from 1-3 credits. Each 1 credit 5 week mini-course will examine carefully a different philosophical classic. LEC 001, 002, & 003 are worth one credit each. You do not have to enroll for all three sections.

Socrates' life and teachings were immortalized by his great pupil, Plato and in his own right, Socrates has been accorded an honored place in the history of philosophy. Yet he remains an enigmatic figure. What sort of a teacher was this man who insisted he was the wisest of all because he knew nothing? Why did the Athenians find his teachings so threatening that they put him to death? In this course we will seek to uncover the puzzle that was Socrates through a reading of Plato's account of his last day.

Philosophy 272-002 Descartes' Meditations , HU
LEC 002, MW 12:30-1:45, CRT 309 (10/8-11/10)
Instructor: Margaret Atherton,
Note: This course or courses offers an opportunity to earn from 1-3 credits. Each 1 credit 5 week mini-course will examine carefully a different philosophical classic. LEC 001, 002, & 003 are worth one credit each. You do not have to enroll for all three sections.

If we sometimes dream, then perhaps the world we perceive when awake has no more reality than the world we dream about. How can you be sure that you do not believe that 2+2=4 because an evil demon has tricked you into so believing? With speculations like these, Descartes took his figure of a meditator into an understanding of the underlying nature of reality, where minds are firmly distinct from bodies and our knowledge of the nature of reality is saved from skepticism through a proof for the existence of God. We will follow the thoughts of the meditator through the steps Descartes laid out for him or her, and see why Descartes ushered in a new era of philosophical endeavor.

Philosophy 272-003 Hume's Dialogues on Natural Religion, HU
LEC 003, MW 12:30-1:45, CRT 309 (11/12-12/12)
Instructor: Margaret Atherton,
Note: This course or courses offers an opportunity to earn from 1-3 credits. Each 1 credit 5 week mini-course will examine carefully a different philosophical classic. LEC 001, 002, & 003 are worth one credit each. You do not have to enroll for all three sections.

Through the mouths of his various characters, Hume recorded the struggles of his age, as thinkers tried to reconcile the discoveries of the great scientists, such a Isaac Newton, with the truths of religion that were supposed to be equally available to rational inspection. One mystery remains for Hume's readers: Who speaks for Hume? Was Hume himself an agnostic or a believer?

Philosophy 303, Theory of Knowledge, HU
LEC 001, MW 2:00-3:15, CRT 309
Prereq: jr. st.; Philos 101, 201, or 215
Instructor: Edward Hinchman,

This course covers the background to contemporary epistemology. We'll read the works, all written in the past 50 years and most written in the past 20, that set the framework for much current work in the field. At the end of the term, you should be able to pick up the latest philosophy journals and read many of the articles in epistemology with understanding. Topics covered include self-deception, skepticism, testimony, and the natures of truth, knowledge and belief.

Philosophy 317, Metaphysics, HU
LEC 001, TR 12:30-1:45, CRT 309
Prereq: jr st & 3 cr in philos
Instructor: Fabrizio Mondadori,

In this course we shall raise, discuss, and attempt to answer, the following (inter-related) questions: (1) whether or not it is possible to change the past (and what is meant by the claim that it can, or cannot, be changed); and (2) whether or not the effect can precede its cause, i.e., whether or not there can be such a thing as backward causation. We shall read texts by Aristotle, St. Thomas, Michael Dummett and David Lewis.

Philosophy 341, Modern Ethical Theories, HU
LEC 001, TR 9:30-10:45, CRT 309
Prereq: jr st & 3 cr in philos
Instructor: Andrea Westlund,

This course will treat a range of issues in contemporary ethics and the theory of practical reason. Its main focus will be on normative ethics or, in other words, on theories about how we should live. What makes an act right or wrong? What sort of person should one strive to be? How do moral requirements bear on our more personal commitments, and how should conflicts between different types of obligation be resolved? We will spend some time on each of the main types of normative theory, including contemporary versions of utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics. In each case we will begin by exploring the historical precursors to these more contemporary approaches. Likely readings include selections by Christine Korsgaard (paired with Kant), J.J.C. Smart and Bernard Williams (paired with J.S. Mill), and Philippa Foot (paired with Aristotle).

Philosophy 349, Great Moral Philosophers: Aristotle and Kant on Choice and Agency, HU
LEC 001, TR 2:00-3:15, CRT 309
Prereq: jr st & 3 cr in philos
Instructor: Carla Bagnoli,

Arguably, Kant and Aristotle are the greatest moral philosophers of western tradition. This course focuses on their conceptions of agency and deliberation, and their legacy in contemporary ethics. Kant's ethical theory promises a systematic and universalistic conception of morality grounded on reason. Because of its generality and abstractness, however, some have objected that Kant's model of practical reasoning cannot account for the variety and importance of particular attachments, loyalties and special relations. On the contrary, Aristotle's ethics is sensitive to the various tonalities of concrete situations, and makes sense of the agents' relations with their community. But it is at risk of discounting the role of reason in moral education. Contemporary ethical debates are deeply influenced both by Kant's and Aristotle's ethics, and some complementary, rather than as mutually exclusive.

Readings include: Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Critique of Practical Reason, and Doctrine of Virtue, B. Williams Moral Luck, C. Korsgaard, Creating the Kingdom of Ends, B. Herman, The Practice of Moral Judgment.

Philosophy 351, Philosophy of Mind, HU
LEC 001, MW 3:30-4:45, CRT 309
Prereq: jr st & 3 cr in philos
Instructor: Daniel Corbett

Philosophy of mind is the branch of philosophy that considers what it means to have a mind and what makes the mind distinct from the rest of nature. In this class we will survey contemporary western philosophy of mind, examining the following questions: Do we each have a soul? If so, is it part of one's physical body or something non-physical and supernatural?; If the soul is non-physical, how can it interact with your physical body? What evidence can we have for its existence?; If the soul is a part of the physical body, how can we make sense of human freedom and consciousness in a world where everything that happens can be reduced to atoms smashing together?; How do you decide if another creature besides yourself has a mind? Do dogs have minds? What about other people? Could there be alien life forms with minds? How should we try to answer these questions? What does it take for a creature to have a mind?; Could a machine think? Are they already thinking? Could a machine have feelings and consciousness?; What are emotions? Are they destructive forces that interfere with the cool operation of reason, thought, and intelligence? Are they an integral part of what it means to be reasonable, thoughtful, and intelligent?

Philosophy 430, History of Ancient Philosophy, HU
LEC 001, MW 11:00-12:15, Room TBA
Prereq: jr st & 3cr in philos
Instructor: Richard Tierney,

In the thought of Ancient Greece we uncover a remarkable phenomenon. The Ancient Greeks, starting from an essentially myth-making way of understanding the world and the human place in it, as found in the work of Homer and Hesiod, developed their ideas to a culmination in a theory of the natural world and of human nature and human contact put forward by Aristotle, which dominated human thinking for many hundreds of years and is still said to capture human "common sense" beliefs about the world. How did this transition come about? We will look at the changing questions asked by the Pre-Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, in order to understand how their ideas and theories about the natural world and human nature resulted in the development of natural science, ethics and metaphysics.

Philosophy 511, Symbolic Logic, HU
LEC 001, TR 12:30-1:45, CRT 607
Prereq: jr st, either Philos 212(P) or 6 cr math at the 300-level or above; or grad st.
Instructor: Stephen Leeds,

Metamathematics, the study of mathematical theory, began as a part of philosophy and developed into a field of mathematics. One of the first major events in the metamorphosis was the publication of Kurt Gödel's 1930 incompleteness results. Among these results was a proof that in any consistent formal theory of arithmetic there are statements which are neither provable nor refutable. Thus the almost universal assumption that arithmetical truth could be understood as provability was destroyed and with it all hope of completing most of the metamathematical work in progress at the time. In this course we will work through Gödel's results. We will also study some related topics in model theory, recursion theory and possibly set theory.

Philosophy 516, Language and Meaning, HU
LEC 001, MW 2:00-3:15, CRT 607
Prereq: jr st, & Philos 101(P) or 432(P).
Instructor: John Koethe,
Linguistics, crosslisted course.

"What is truth?" said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer.

Philosophy of Language is one of the most central areas of philosophy. It is, in a sense, both the place where traditional metaphysical concerns about reality, thought and objectivity have come to roost in the twentieth century, and the area which has had the deepest influence on disciplines outside of philosophy - having, for example, helped shape the methodology of such sciences as psychology and sociology, and provided much of the impetus behind fashionable current trends in literary studies. The reason for its importance lies in the extreme generality of the question it addresses: What is the nature of representation and reference? What is the nature of truth? The sort of approach one takes to these questions is often virtually definitive of one's general intellectual temperament.

This course will examine various current theories of reference, truth and meaning. The readings will include works by Locke, Frege, Russell, Kripke, Tarski, Davidson and Quine.

Philosophy 532, Philosophical Problems: Moral Objectivity, HU
LEC 001, TR 11:00-12:15, CRT 607
Prereq: jr st & 3 cr in philos
Instructor: Carla Bagnoli,

Whether moral judgments are objective and subjective is a matter of contention since the birth of philosophy. Some claim that moral judgments are objective, universally valid and especially authoritative. Others consider them subjective, local, and of limited authority. Even more controversial are the standards of objectivity in ethics. In this course, we will take into consideration the main approaches to moral objectivity in contemporary meta-ethics, such as realism, anti-realism, and constructivism. Moral realism takes moral judgments to be objective when they correctly represent moral facts. Non-realists rebut that there are no such facts, and thus the claim of objectivity in ethics is not justified. Constructivists hold that the objectivity is the result of a correct procedure of reasoning. These approaches lead to competing conceptions of the nature of moral reasons, the significance of moral disagreement, and the impact of rational argumentation in ethics. Readings will include: G.E. Moore, T. Nagel, C. Korsgaard, J. McDowell, S. Blackburn, B. Williams.

Philosophy 532, Philosophical Problems: Kant's Religion, HU
LEC 002, R 5:30-8:10, CRT 607
Prereq: jr st & 3 cr in philos
Instructor: William Bristow

Immanuel Kant argues that "morality leads ineluctably to religion". He argues that we cannot understand ourselves as bound by moral duties without also having faith that nature is created by God and that we possess immortal souls. Moreover, in his late text Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason (1793), Kant argues that central dogmas of the Christian faith can - under a particular interpretation - be derived as constraints of universal human practical reason, independently of any special divine revelation. Kant's arguments attempting to show that general religious beliefs and specific Christian beliefs can be derived from the structure of practical reason have generated a great deal of controversy. Many critics contend that his arguments conflict with his own conception of the moral law as a law of autonomy. Some critics contend that his interpretations of religious beliefs distort their true meaning. In this course we will study Kant's arguments critically. Our main texts will be Kant's Critique of Practical Reason and his Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason. In the last few weeks, for the sake of contrast, we will read from the texts of Soren Kierkegaard, who presents a conception of how human reason, human freedom, morality and Christian faith relate to each other that is completely anti-thetical to Kant's.

Philosophy 554, Special Topics in the History of Modern Philosophy: Hegel's 'Phenomenology of Spirit', HU
LEC 001, MW 12:30-1:45, CRT 607
Prereq: jr st; 3 cr philos; Philos 432(R); or cons instr.
Instructor: Julius Sensat,

The celebration of Hegel's 56th birthday received more play in the Berlin press than a party for the King of Prussia. Hegel was that notable because of the widespread belief that philosophy - indeed, his philosophy - was the quintessential intellectual discipline of modernity. On this view, modern philosophy does not merely articulate the rational elements of a historical movement realizing human freedom. It is the rational self-consciousness of that movement as well, and it is thereby essential to that movement, completing it as well as comprehending it. Hegel first articulates this vision in his masterful Phenomenology of Spirit. It is hard to overestimate the significance of this work for nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy. It will be our major focus. But as time permits we shall pay some attention to other works, particularly those that bring out his critique of Kant and his mature social and political philosophy. There will be a heavy discussion component.

Philosophy 681, Seminar in Advanced Topics: The Problem of Universals in the Middle Ages, HU
SEM 001, T 3:30-6:10, CRT 607
Prereq: sr st & 12 cr in philos at 300-level or above; or grad st.
Instructor: Fabrizio Mondadori

A so-called general term — e.g., "horse", "red" — typically applies to a number of particular things: and the things to which it applies are typically (and not implausibly) said to have something in common. Less typically, what they are said to have in common is a so-called universal — e.g., horsehood, redness, — which the general term is taken to refer to. The problem of universals arises when we raise the question (1) of what "have in common" means here, and (2) of what kind of entity a universal is. The problem has been discussed with unparalleled subtlety by the Schoolmen — prominent among them, Abelard, Duns Scotus, and Ockham. This course will be devoted to an analysis of their answers (as well as those of Porphyry and Boethius) to questions (1) and (2) above.

Philosophy 685, Senior Capstone Research Seminar: Philosophy of Action , HU
SEM 001, R 2:30-5:10, CRT 607
Prereq: sr st; declared Philos major; or cons instr.
Instructor: Luca Ferrero,
Undergraduates only.

What differentiates actions, such as raising my arm, from mere happening and body movements, such as the rising of my arm? In this course, we will investigate the distinction between actions and happenings and why this distinction should matter to us. We will consider questions about the ontology of action, the explanation of action, the unity of agency, and the differences between animal and human action. Under the heading of ontology, we will investigate the following issues: the relation between events, bodily movements and actions; whether actions are distinct from other events because they are caused in special ways (e.g., by the agent or by acts of will); the criteria of identity for actions; the determination of the inception, duration and termination of actions; the distinction between positive and negative actions (omissions); the relation between simple-basic actions and more complex ones, and the effects of prosthetic devices on the location of the centers of control and agency. The central question about the explanation of action is whether the distinctive mode of explaining actions (by appeal to teleological and interpretative concepts) can be reduced to the causal-predictive mode of event explanation. In this context, we will consider the issue of the relation between reasons and causes. Under the heading of the unity of agency, we will consider the relation between agency and the self, with particular attention to the questions raised by intentions and commitments. If time permits, we will consider the relation between individual and collective agency. Finally, we will consider the differences between the kinds of agency that can be attributed to living organisms, human beings and various human artifacts. Readings drawn, for the most part, will be from the works of contemporary analytic philosophers.

Philosophy 758, Seminar in Major Philosophers: Berkeley, HU
SEM 001, M 5:00-7:40, CRT 607
Prereq: grad st; cons instr
Instructor: Margaret Atherton,

George Berkeley has had a long standing but ambiguous reputation. The poet, William Butler Yeats, said that Berkeley expressed the Irish temperament when he "proved all things a dream" but Berkeley's editor, A. A. Luce said that Berkeley aligned "we Irish" with sturdy common sense. Many have supposed that the claims that Berkeley is most closely associated with-that there is no matter and that the only things that exist are ideas and minds that have them -- must be totally ludicrous. But others have agreed with Berkeley himself that on Berkeley's principles it is possible to preserve common sense. A final puzzle arises: what exactly are Berkeley's principles? Berkeley's most famous claims appear in only two of his works, Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. If the denial of the existence of matter constitutes the main tenet of Berkeleianism, why did Berkeley suppress all mention of it in all but two of his works? We will try to gain answers to these central questions in the interpretation of Berke-ley's thought, by setting his major works in the context, both of Berke-ley's other writings, and in the historical context against which he was working.

Philosophy 790, Advanced Topics in Philosophy: Graduate Student Writing Workshop, HU
LEC 001, R 6:30-9:10, CRT 666
Prereq: grad st & cons instr
Instructor: Luca Ferrero,

This workshop offers the opportunity for graduate students to present their work in progress and receive peer comments on their work and writing. Students will learn how to present their work to an audience of non-experts; how to prepare fellowship applications and submissions to conferences and journals.

Philosophy 903, Seminar in Epistemology: Belief and the Will, HU
SEM 002, W 5:00-7:40, CRT 607
Prereq: grad st & cons instr
Instructor: Edward Hinchman,

This seminar will address issues at the intersection of epistemology, philosophy of mind, and moral psychology. The issues fall into three groups: (a) What are the natures of believing and judging as psychological acts or states? (b) What norms govern believing and judging, and how do they work? How do they compare to the norms governing such interpersonal epistemic attitudes as the giving and receiving of testimony? (c) What, more generally, are the natures of all these norms? How, in particular, do epistemic norms differ from practical norms? We'll read works by (among others) Tyler Burge, Edward Craig, Stephen Darwall, John MacFarlane, Richard Moran, David Owens, Peter Railton, Joseph Raz, Jason Stanley, David Velleman, Gary Watson, and Timothy Williamson.