Disclaimer: to avoid problems of URL changes, etc., please access any UWM Libraries susbscription databases, including Westlaw Campus Research and LexisNexis, via the UWM Libraries home page, Resources A-Z list.

SECTION 1:     UNITED STATES and REGIONAL

1.A:     STATUTORY LAW

1.A.1: STATUTORY LAW - UNITED STATES

A BILL is potential legislation introduced into the Senate, House of Representatives, or both. A bill passed by both houses of Congress and signed by the Chief Executive (President) has become a LAW. Laws are published in individual pamphlet format by law number (generally in chronological order), and compiled into cumulative subject and chronological resources.
Much current legislative material, particularly federal government information, is available on the Internet. While there are various sources for federal information, a good start is FDsys at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/, GPO access at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/, or THOMAS, legislative information on the Internet, at http://thomas.loc.gov/.

BILL

Federal bills have been available at the Milwaukee Public Library and current ones are available online. See the Legislative Branch Resources site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/legislative.html, or use http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/ for current materials. Section 1.A.2 for indexing.

SLIP LAW

Shortly after a law has been passed, it is officially issued in a pamphlet format called a SLIP LAW. Each slip law is assigned a PUBLIC LAW number, e.g., P.L. 103-259. The first number refers to the session of Congress, and the second number is the accession number assigned to the law. The accession number is in a purely numerical sequence and has no subject connotation {i.e., first law passed becomes 1, second is 2, etc.}. Digest of Public Public Bills and Congressional Index; "slip laws" are also published in the Code Congressional and Administrative News prior to being published in the Statutes at Large. (Section 1.A.2).

UWM Libraries: Slip laws are not received by UWM Libraries - see online at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ {"Public and Private Laws"} or http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/.

STATUTES AT LARGE

United States Statutes At Large is the official permanent publication of all laws including private laws, concurrent resolutions, and presidential proclamations; the slip laws are published in this set in numerical order. This is the source to use to read the law exactly as it was passed. Volumes are slow in being published, see United States Code Congressional and Administrative News for more current cumulations. Citations to Statutes at Large include a volume/congressional session number, set notation, and page number, e.g., 102 Stat. 3184.

UWM Libraries: United States Statutes at Large volumes are located on the 3rd floor, West wing, KF 50 .A3x. Some volumes are also available in the Media Library (Microtext), in microfilm, (MF) KF 01. [Many volumes, including microform have been disclared missing.] Check: http://thomas.loc.gov/ or, for historical statutes, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwsl.html

UNITED STATES CODE

The United States Code, published every six years with annual cumulative supplements, is the official compilation by the government of all the laws as they are in force/effect and organized in a codified, or subject, arrangement. There are 50 broad subjects, called TITLES. Titles are subdivided into chapters and sections. Citations to the United States Code (USC) give the title number, set notation, and section number, e.g., 31 U.S.C. 9105. When looking in the volumes of the set, there is no reason to refer to the title so an internal citation will look like 31 § 9105. The main set has annual cumulative supplements, usually 1-2 years behind, and includes a subject index and tables. The UWM Libraries keep the latest edition and supplements only.

UWM Libraries: The United States Code is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KF 62 .A1. See also the electronic resource LexisNexis Academic, online via Thomas, or http://uscode.house.gov/.

UNITED STATES CODE ANNOTATED

The United States Code Annotated (USCA) is a commercial publication of the USC that lists and annotates court decisions which have interpreted each section of the Code. The USCA may also include the history of a law, references to journal articles about the law, and cross references to other publications. Indexed by subject and popular name of the law, USCA also includes tables to convert public law numbers to code numbers. The main set is kept up-to-date with supplements and annual pocket parts. Citations to the United States Code Annotated give the title number, set notation, and section number, e.g., 18 U.S.C.A. 1203.

UWM Libraries: The print United States Code Annotated is no longer carried by UWM Libraries: see the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research.

UNITED STATES CODE CONGRESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE NEWS

The United States Code Congressional and Administrative News (USCCAN) is a Thomson/West publication that supplements and updates the USCA by more timely cumulative publication of laws passed in the current Congress. It also includes legislative histories with references to congressional reports, etc. Each volume is indexed by subject and popular name and there are various conversion tables. Cumulative bound volumes are published for each session and the set is kept current with advance sheets. SLIP LAWS.

UWM Libraries: USCCAN volumes are located on the 3rd floor, West Wing, KF 62 .U5x. UWM Libraries holdings cover 1941-2006. For access to legislative history information since 1990, use Westlaw. In Westlaw, click on the "I" (Information) link adjacent to the link for United States Code Annotated, scroll down to "related databases" and select "LH". The UWM Libraries does not subscribe or have access to all of the specialized databases listed in this section.

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1.A.2: STATUTORY LAW - UNITED STATES - LEGISLATIVE HISTORIES

A legislative history consists of all or some of the following (either in summary, full, or citation format):
  1. Bills
    1. The bill as originally introduced by the House or Senate.
    2. The bill, with any amendments.
    3. The bill as it passed in the originating body and as introduced into the other. (At this point, it is generally called an ACT.)
    4. The act, with any amendments.
    5. The act as amended by a joint Conference Committee of the House and Senate.
  2. Reports
    1. The reports of the committee to which the bill was assigned.
    2. The reports of the committee to which the act was assigned.
    3. The report of the Joint Conference Committee of the House and Senate. This is usually issued as a House Report.
  3. Debates
    The debates, if any, on the floor of Congress that appear in the Congressional Record.
  4. Hearings
    The hearings, if any, held by the committee(s) to which the bill had been assigned.
  5. The Public Law (Act) resulting from all of the above.

CONGRESSIONAL INDEX

The Congressional Index is a commercially produced looseleaf service which covered bills currently pending, giving a brief summary and status of each item of legislation. The status information included the indication of "where" the bill is, e.g., in what committee, whether it's been amended, passed, etc. The legislation is indexed by subject, bill number, and sponsor. Laws are originally introduced in Congress as bills; those that survive the legislative process and are passed become law. Full text copies of the bills are available online, and are not received by UWM Libraries (see also under Bills or Slip Laws in Section 1.A.1).

UWM Libraries: The current session of the Congressional Index is located in the Reference collecton, (REF) KF 49 .C6. Issues from 1995/96 are located on the 3rd floor, West wing, with the same call number.

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD

The Congressional Record is the official record of what happens on the floor of Congress. Coverage includes the introduction of bills, resolutions, any discussions on the floor of Congress, etc. The Congressional Record also includes supplementary material introduced by congresspersons, but not actually read or spoken on the floor. See also the THOMAS internet site or the GPO Access site for the Congressional Record; see American Memory for online versions of the historical Congresssional debates.

          http://thomas.loc.gov/home/r110query.html
          http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/
          http://www.gpoaccess.gov/crecord/index.html
          http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwdebt.html

UWM Libraries: Retrospective cumulative volumes may be located in paper in compact shelving, Lower Level, West wing (J 11 .R5) or in the Media Library (Microtext area). Check the online catalog for correct title information and for the location/format/call number of any specific year. For current issues, use one of the recommended websites.

CQ WEEKLY

The publication, CQ Weekly, published by Congressional Quarterly, Inc., reports congressional action and includes a listing of public laws with a brief history of each law.

UWM Libraries: Current issues are located in the Current Periodicals area, JK 1 .C15; bound volumes are located on 3rd floor, West wing. Subject indexing is available through various electronic periodical indexes, from 1990-current. Indexes covering CQ Weekly available at UWM Libraries include: Academic Search Complete, Business Source Premier, MAS Ultra-School Edition, MasterFILE Premier, Military & Government Collection, and Social Sciences Full Text. Online full-text for the articles is not currently available.

CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS

The CIS Index is a commercial indexing and abstracting service for Congressional hearings, reports, and special publications, starting in 1970. Legislative history information is located in each annual cumulation. The service is published monthly, with quarterly cumulations of the index, and an annual cumulation for both index and abstract volumes. The CIS Index uses their own alphanumeric code system instead of the SuDocs number (H for House, S for Senate, and J for joint). The documents indexed by this service are available in microfiche the CIS assigned alphanumeric accession code (H683-41, S261-32, J892-18 - numbers may repeat annually) and year of volume are necessary for retrieval of the microfiche document.

Current hearings are available full text online from the federal government site; there is no indexing of the contents of these publications, but search a government website or through the online Catalog of U.S.Government Publications to access these unique, often primary, resources.

UWM Libraries: The CIS Index is located in the Media Library (Microtext area - print indexes), (MFC) KF 49 .C4x; the CIS Microfiche Library, the collection of documents indexed, is also located in the Media Library (Microtext area) in the Lower Level, West wing. Any available print hearings are listed individually in the library catalog. Index and microfiche holdings cover 1970-2008.

DIGEST OF PUBLIC GENERAL BILLS

The Digest of Public General Bills and Resolutions gave summaries of every public bill introduced in Congress. This numerical arrangement of bills provided a summary and status for each bill, and the tables included a public law listing with corresponding bill number. On occasion, Congressional hearings covering a specific bill(s) will include the full text of that bill(s).

UWM Libraries: The Digest ceased publication after the 1990 edition. All holdings are located on the 3rd floor, West wing, with the call number J 52 .A3.

UNITED STATES CODE CONGRESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE NEWS

Mentioned in Section 1.A.1, this is an excellent source for legislative history and is a good source for laws passed.

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1.B:     ADMINISTRATIVE LAW - UNITED STATES

Federal agencies are created by Congress to carry out statutory laws; these agencies create REGULATIONS to enforce the laws. Regulations, while not laws, in and of themselves, have the force of law. Some examples of these agencies are the Internal Revenue Service, Food and Drug Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency. The President may also issue regulations. New and proposed regulations from the various federal agencies are published daily (business days excluding federal holidays); regulations in force are compiled annually.
Much current legislative material is available, particularly federal government information, on the Internet. While there are various sources, a good start is FDsys, the National Archives link at the GPO site for Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations materials, or the commercial source Westlaw Campus Research.

FEDERAL REGISTER

Federal agencies are required to publish all new and proposed regulations in the Federal Register (FR). Published each weekday (excluding holidays), the Federal Register has a monthly cumulative index; the "index" is, in actuality, merely a list of the tables of contents of the FR arranged by agency. Regulations in force are part of the annual Code of Federal Regulations (see below). A citation to the Federal Register will include volume, page number and year, e.g., 45 Fed.Reg. 41,629 (1980). Since there is no reason to refer to the title within the volumes of the set, an internal citation may look like 45 § 145. The most current edition (1999) of the guide Federal Register, What It Is and How to Use It is available online at http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/tutorial/.

UWM Libraries: The print FR is not received by UWM Libraries: see the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research (for 1981+ issues), http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/, or http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/ (for 1994+ issues).

CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

All regulations in force are compiled and codified (arranged by subject) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The CFR is arranged by subject in 50 TITLES similar, but not identical, to those of the United States Code. The Code of Federal Regulations is an annual publication on a scheduled arrangement with volumes being published throughout the year. The user may need to consult the main index volume for two years for complete information; more detailed indexes are available in each TITLE. The library keeps the current edition only of each title except Title 3, and retains all issues of Title 3 which covers Presidential proclamations and executive orders. Proposed regulations are first printed in the Federal Register, see above. Citations to the Code of Federal Regulations include title number, set notation, and section number, e.g., 30 C.F.R. 816.79; a year may be added, especially if the regulation is no longer in force, e.g., 30 C.F.R. 816.79 (1991).

UWM Libraries: The print Code of Federal Regulations is not owned (see Title 3 below): see the electronic resources

          http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/
          Westlaw Campus Research,
          http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html, or
          http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfr-table-search.html (for 1996+ issues).

UWM Libraries: Past volumes of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 3, are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 70 .A3. Volumes of Title 3 are NOT available via Westlaw Campus Research.

PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS

The Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents is a publication which includes proclamations, statements, regulations, messages, etc. issued by the President. An annual index is located in the last issue of each volume.

UWM Libraries: Print issues of the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, [v. 1(1965)-v. 36#43 (Oct. 2000) with some missing issues] are located on 3rd floor, West wing, J 80 .A284. Current issues and issues back to 1993, are available online: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=CPD. In January 2009 the online "weekly" became "daily".

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1.C:     JUDICIAL LAW

1.C.1: JUDICIAL LAW - FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM

Courts in the U.S. are primarily involved in settling disputes between private parties and determining the guilt or innocence of persons accused of crimes. In a trial court, evidence is presented and a jury is asked to decide the verdict; a judge is present to oversee the legal procedures. Either party, if dissatisfied with the ruling, may appeal to a higher court. Appeals may be based only on alleged misapplication of law, not on dissatisfaction with the verdict. In the appeals court, a panel of judges determine whether the law was correctly applied in the lower court; facts accepted in the lower court are accepted and no new evidence or witnesses are heard. A higher court's decision on a particular issue is binding on a lower court in the same jurisdiction. Courts only rule in situations within their jurisdiction, which may be defined either geographically or by the type of cases a court may consider. Decisions, or interpretations, made by court judges may be referred to as "case law" rather than the official "common law." The FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM consists of three divisions: the District Courts, Courts of Appeals, and Supreme Court.
Much of this material is also available on the Internet; start with GPO access and go from there.
CHECK Westlaw Campus Research or LexisNexis Academic - MOST OF THE CURRENT MATERIALS FROM THESE SOURCES AND OTHERS WILL BE INCLUDED.

U.S. DISTRICT COURTS

A district court is the trial court, or court of original jurisdiction, in the federal system. District courts hear civil and criminal cases arising under federal law and cases where citizens of two or more states are in conflict. The number of district courts within a state is determined by population and geographic area. Wisconsin is divided into two districts: Eastern, based in Milwaukee, and Western, based in Madison. Decisions of District Court cases involving Federal Rules of Criminal and Civil Procedure may be located in Federal Rules Decisons (KF 8830, 3rd floor, West wing and online via Westlaw Campus Research). Many District Court cases are unpublished and only available through the clerk of courts or a specialized commercial computerized database. Appeals of district court decisons go to the Court of Appeals. Federal Supplement, Section 1.C.2.

U.S. COURT OF APPEALS

The Court of Appeals is the second highest court; these courts are often referred to as "Circuit courts." There are 13 U.S. Courts of Appeals: eleven numbered circuits with regional jurisdiction, a District of Columbia circuit, and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit located in Washington D.C., which has nationwide jurisdiction to hear certain types of cases. Wisconsin is in the Seventh Circuit which sits in Chicago. [http://www.ca7.uscourts.gov/] Cases appealed have come from the district courts. Federal Reporter, Section 1.C.2.

U.S. SUPREME COURT

The highest court, the Supreme Court is comprised of the Chief Justice and eight associate justices. This court hears cases which question the constitutionality of a federal or state statute. It also hears cases on appeal from the states' highest courts and the U.S. Courts of Appeals. The Supreme Court has discretion to grant or deny a hearing for most cases brought before it. Cases brought to the Supreme Court may also result in a summary action, whereby the lower court's decision is affirmed or vacated without a written decision or explanation provided by the Supreme Court; these may be referred to as Memorandum cases/decisions in the volumes covering Supreme Court decisions.

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1.C.2: JUDICIAL LAW - FEDERAL COURTS - COURT REPORTS

Federal District Courts and Courts of Appeals

Since 1880 there have not been any officially published reports for the federal courts of appeals and the federal district courts. The Federal Reporter and the Federal Supplement, published by Thomson/ West Publishing Co., are relied on for these reports not all decisions are authorized for publication. Some federal district court decisions can be located only by using a looseleaf service covering a specific subject area, e.g., Environment Reporter, United States Tax Reporter, etc. Unreported cases, those not authorized for publication, of the district courts may be available only by direct request to the court clerks.

CHECK Westlaw Campus Research or LexisNexis Academic ON THE UWM LIBRARIES HOMEPAGE: Resources A-Z - MOST OF THE CURRENT PUBLISHED MATERIALS FROM THESE SOURCES WILL BE INCLUDED.

The following elements are usually included in a court report:

  • The parties involved.
  • The citation for the case.
  • The court docket number.
  • The date the case was decided.
  • The court in which the cases was decided.
  • Synopsis of the case.
  • Headnotes (points of law) raised in the case.
  • Syllabus or history of the case.
  • Decision of the court.
  • Opinion of the judge or judges.

FEDERAL REPORTER / WEST'S FEDERAL REPORTER

The Federal Reporter publishes decisions of the 11 U.S. Courts of Appeals (circuit courts). This began publication in 1880 and consists of three published series the first series is numbered volumes 1-300, the second series started re-numbering from volume 1-999, and the current, third, series, which started in 1993, started with a new volume 1. Up to 1932, the Federal Reporter included opinions from the federal district courts, and covered Court of Claims for various years. Due to the increased caseload of the courts, rules now restrict the number of published opinions. Citations to the Federal Reporter include the volume, set notation, and page number, e.g., 265 F. 268, 331 F.2d 1000, 1 F.3rd 721. The Reporter is first issued in advance sheets which are replaced by bound volumes. Various websites will link to circuit court report decisions; a general site is http://www.lawguru.com/links/smartsearch.cgi.

UWM Libraries: All series of the Federal Reporter are located on the 3rd floor, West wing. The first series is located with the call number KF 105 .F42x; the second series, KF 105 .F422x; the third series, KF 105 .F423x. Paper holdings are v. 1 (1880) - Ser 3 v. 157 (1998). See the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research for all volumes.

For a listing by state of which circuit that state is part of Section 4.F.

FEDERAL SUPPLEMENT / WEST'S FEDERAL SUPPLEMENT

The Federal Supplement contains selected opinions of the 94 federal district courts; only a small percentage of the cases heard are ever published. The Supplement began publication in 1933 and is issued first in advance sheets which are replaced by bound volumes. Volumes 1-181 of the Federal Supplement also contain decisions of the U.S. Court of Claims; decisions of the U.S. Customs Court began being published in the Supplement in 1956. A citation to the Federal Supplement will include volume, set notation, and page number, e.g., 305 F.Supp. 60.

Internet: Most federal District courts are available online; one place to start is
http://www.findlaw.com/10fedgov/judicial/district_courts.html.

UWM Libraries: The Federal Supplement/West's Federal Supplement is located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 105 .F45x (v. 1 - Ser. 2 v. 17, 1933-1998). Check the electronic resource Westlaw Campus Research for access to this material.

AMERICAN LAW REPORTS, FEDERAL

The American Law Reports, ALR Federal (ALR Fed), a commercially published series, is a selective reporter of federal court cases for issues relating to federal law. The editors select what they deem as significant court decisions. The ALR, although highly selective, is valued for exhaustive annotations which discuss significant legal topics for each case reported. An ALR annotation will include past developments, the current law in most states, and probable future trends. See also ALR 2nd-5th (Section 1.C.4) for general and state issues and earlier federal issues. Citations to the American Law Reports, ALR Federal includes volume, set notation, and page number, e.g., 53 A.L.R.Fed. 272. The print ALR Federal is kept up-to-date with annual pocket parts. Subject indexing is mentioned under Section 1.C.6.

UWM Libraries: The American Law Reports, ALR Federal is available via the electronic resource Westlaw Campus Research.

Most of the material from the Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, American Law Reports, and American Law Reports. Federal is part of the electronic Westlaw Campus Research; UWM Libraries no longer receive paper issues and may have only electronic volumes available.

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1.C.3: JUDICIAL LAW - U.S. SUPREME COURT - COURT REPORTS

The decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are published in various editions. Individual decisions may also be located in subject specific looseleaf services, e.g., Criminal Law Reporter, Environment Reporter, etc. For subject or case name access to the Supreme Court decisions, see the Digest of United States Supreme Court Reports (Lawyer's Edition), Section 1.C.6.
Current Supreme Court decisions are also available on the Internet; a good general site is FindLaw at http://www.findlaw.com/. See also the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research, or a variety of legal websites.

A good reference to a Supreme Court decision will give the citation to all three court reporters, e.g.,

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, 98 L.Ed. 873, 74 S.Ct. 686.
If a citation is not given for all three, use the Table of Cases volume from the Digest of United States Supreme Court Reports (Lawyer's Edition) (REF) KF 101 .1 .D5x - it will give references to all series of Supreme Court decisions.

SUPREME COURT REPORTER (S.Ct.)

This unofficial edition of the Supreme Court decisions, published by Thomson/West as part of the NATIONAL REPORTER SYSTEM, includes the full text of the opinion with headnotes and the appropriate West key numbers. Decisions are issued in advance sheets which are replaced by interim volumes, then final volumes. Citations to the Supreme Court Reporter will include volume number, set notation, and page number, e.g., 56 S.Ct. 229.

UWM Libraries: The Supreme Court Reporter, all volumes, is available via the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research.

UNITED STATES REPORTS (U.S.)

The United States Reports is the official edition published by the U.S. government. The decisions have been issued in individual pamphlet form, called SLIP OPINIONS, which were eventually replaced by bound volumes. There is a significant delay in publishing the bound volumes of this resource; bound volumes are currently being published in an Interim edition before the final edition. Citations to the United States Reports will include volume number, set notation, and page number, e.g., 315 U.S. 521.

UWM Libraries: The bound volumes of the United States Reports are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 101 .U51x (v. 2, 1885-v. 550, 2006). Paper Slip Opinions ceased mid-2002 - use http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS1858 for archival decisions (back to 1992/93) or http://www.supremecourtus.gov/index.html for current decisions. Westlaw Campus Research also has these volumes available.

UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT REPORTS (Lawyer's Edition) (L.Ed.)

This unofficial edition of the Supreme Court decisions, published by the Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Co., includes the full text of the opinion, summaries and headnotes, and annotations (brief paragraphs on legal issues in the case). It also has an appendix of selected case summaries of attorney's briefs. The Lawyer's Edition also consists of annual pocket part supplements to the main volumes to correct or update annotations. Decisions are first published as advance sheets which are replaced by bound volumes. The United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyer's Edition has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the Lawyer's Edition will include volume number, set notation, and page number, e.g., 42 L.Ed. 941, 16 L.Ed.2d 600. The later case service, (REF) KF 101 .U52x 1983, updates various volumes of this series.

UWM Libraries: The most current volumes and index of the United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyer's Edition are located in the Reference collection, (REF) KF 101 .U5x. Earlier volumes are located in the Reference Annex area, lower level, West wing, by the same call number.

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1.C.4: JUDICIAL LAW - STATE COURT DECISIONS - COURT REPORTS

NATIONAL REPORTER SYSTEM - REGIONAL

All states, at one time, published state Supreme Court decisions in "official reports"; however most now rely on Thomson/West Publishing Company's NATIONAL REPORTER SYSTEM. The National Reporter System consists of the opinions from the U.S. Supreme Court (Section 1.C.3), and the opinions of state supreme courts. For a complete description of the Reporter System, consult a legal research guide. For complete library holdings of the reporters, consult the online catalog.

The state reporting system divides the states into seven (7) loosely geographical regions. Each reporter prints the supreme court reports of all states within that region, in chronological order. The reports contain the full text of the decisions and headnotes and are key-numbered to the American Digest classification system. There are also tables of cases and words and phrases listings for the volumes. Separate reporters for individual states are also available from the publisher as subsets of each regional reporter. Many states have current state supreme court decisions available, in slip format, on the Internet. Slip formats do not include headnotes, any citations, etc.

For subject indexing of these titles, Section 1.C.6: for citator information, Section 1.C.8: and for an alphabetical listing by state and appropriate reporter, Section 4.F.

Check the online catalog for current information and exact holdings; if no current holdings are listed in PantherCat, check the electronic resources. The print copies of the regional reporters and the American Law Reports were cancelled and replaced by Westlaw Campus Research OR LexisNexis Academic.

ATLANTIC REPORTER
The West's Atlantic Reporter contains the Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont Supreme Courts and the District of Columbia Municipal Court of Appeals. The Atlantic Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the Atlantic Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 180 A. 809, 63 A.2d 158.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 (1886)- Ser. 2 v.140 (1958) are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .A7; all volumes are available via the online Westlaw Campus Research.

NORTH EASTERN REPORTER
The West's North Eastern Reporter contains the Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio Supreme Courts. The North Eastern Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the North Eastern Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 132 N.E. 907, 95 N.E.2d 49.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 (1885)- v. 200 (1936) [Northeastern Reporter] are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .N6; all volumes are available via the online Westlaw Campus Research.

NORTH WESTERN REPORTER / WEST'S NORTH WESTERN REPORTER
The West's North Western Reporter contains the Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin Supreme Courts. The North Western Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the North Western Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 51 N.W. 724, 65 N.W.2d 185. Section 2.A.1 for Wisconsin.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 (1942) - Ser.2 v.584 (1998) are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .N7; all volumes are available via the online Westlaw Campus Research.

PACIFIC REPORTER
The Pacific Reporter contains the Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming Supreme Courts. The Pacific Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the Pacific Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 9 P. 697, 16 P.2d 720.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 (1884) - Ser 2 v.250 are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .P2; all volumes are available via the online Westlaw Campus Research.

SOUTHEASTERN REPORTER
The Southeastern Reporter contains the Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia Supreme Courts. The Southeastern Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the Southeastern Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 85 S.E. 994, 60 S.E.2d 322. Series have been entitled Southeastern Reporter, South Eastern Reporter, or West's South Eastern Reporter.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 (1887) - v. 130 (1926) (1st series) are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .S6 S59x; all volumes are available via the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

SOUTH WESTERN REPORTER
The West's South Western Reporter contains the Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas Supreme Courts. The South Western Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the South Western Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 184 S.W. 999, 262 S.W.2d 480.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 (1886) - Ser.2 v.300 are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .S7; all volumes are available via the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

SOUTHERN REPORTER
The West's Southern Reporter contains the Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississipi Supreme Courts. The Southern Reporter has been published in two numerical series. A citation to the Southern Reporter consists of volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 31 So. 201, 48 So.2d 794.

UWM Libraries: all volumes are available via the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

AMERICAN LAW REPORTS

The American Law Reports, ALR, 2nd - 6th, published by Lawyers Co-Operative Publishing, are selective reporters for state court decisions relating to general and state law. The editors select what they deem as significant court decisions. The ALR, although selective, is valued for the exhaustive annotations which discuss significant legal topics for each case reported. The ALR annotations include past developments, the current law in most states, and probable future trends. See also ALR Federal for federal courts (Section 1.C.2). ALR is kept up-to-date with annual pocket parts. Prior to 1969, these series also covered cases of concern for federal law. Correct citations to the ALR series will include volume number, set notation, number of series, and page, e.g., 53 ALR 3d 74.

For subject indexing of these volumes, Section 1.C.6.

UWM Libraries: (print resources)

American Law Reports Annotated (2nd) volumes are located with the call number KF 132 .A46x. The 2nd series covers 1948-1965; holdings are Ser 2. v. 1-62 (1948-1958), with some missing issues. It is updated by the American Law Reports second series; Later Case Service, KF 132 .A476x. See electronic versions listed below.

UWM Libraries: These volumes are available via the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

American Law Reports, ALR 2nd - the 2nd series covers 1948-1965.

American Law Reports, ALR 3rd - the 3rd series covers 1965-1980.

American Law Reports, ALR 4th - the 4th series covers 1980-1991.

American Law Reports, ALR 5th - the 5th series covers 1992-2004.

American Law Reports, ALR 6th - the 6th series covers 2005 +.

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1.C.5: JUDICIAL LAW - ACCESS

Judicial decisions are published in chronological order. Subject access is provided by various sources including digests, encyclopedias, dictionaries, citators, law reports, looseleaf services, or periodicals. The Supreme Court of the United States, 1789-1980 [(REF) KF 101 .6 .B57 1983 v. 1-2] is an index to federal Supreme Court decisions by name of justice; this volume is updated by a supplement covering 1980-1990; Marquette Memorial library owns the supplement as well as the main two volume set.

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1.C.6: JUDICIAL LAW - SUBJECT ACCESS - DIGESTS

AMERICAN DIGEST SYSTEM

The AMERICAN DIGEST SYSTEM is divided into separate cumulative 10 year units, each entitled Decennial Digest. Due to the increasing number of cases, Thomson/West now publishes a cumulative 5 year digest (2 of which will make one numbered Decennial). Annual issues of the digest series, West's General Digest, cumulate into the Decennial Digest. There are table of contents volumes as part of each of the sets, which can act as an indexing resource.

A digest arranges judicial decisions by legal topic and sub-topic. The AMERICAN DIGEST SYSTEM covers all decisions published in the West reporters (Section 1.C.4) using a Key Number Classification System. Each case is analyzed by the Thomson/West editors and every important point of law is summarized in a brief abstract. In the Thomson/West reporters, these abstracts are called HEADNOTES. In making the digest, these headnotes are arranged under 400 broad areas, or TOPICS, of law. Each topic is further divided into specific sub-topics which are designated by key numbers, using a key symbol . In the digest, the headnotes for all cases dealing with a specific topic and key number will be listed together. Each unit of the AMERICAN DIGEST SYSTEM includes cases appearing in all of the West reporters. The assigned "Key Number" heading is indicated by a symbol of a key and will be broken down into further numerical (subject) breakdowns following the classification system. The terminology is meant for lawyers and will be very legalese.

DECENNIAL DIGESTS

UWM Libraries: All volumes of the Decennial Digest and the West's General Digest are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 141; holdings are

5th Decennial1936-1946
6th Decennial1946-1956
7th Decennial1956-1966
8th Decennial1966-1976
9th Decennial
        Part 11976-1981
        Part 21981-1986
10th Decennial
        Part 1

1986-1991

        Part 21991-1996
West's General Digest
        9th Seriesv. 1 (1996)-v. 29 (1998)

WEST'S FEDERAL PRACTICE DIGEST

The original Federal Digest has been supplemented by four additional series as West's Federal Practice Digest. These digests cover cases appearing in the Supreme Court Reporter, Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, and Federal Rules Decisions (KF 8830 on the 3rd floor, West wing; cited as F.R.D.). The 2nd-3rd and 3rd-4th Digests are supplemented by pamphlets; 1998 is the latest pamphlet supplement for the 4th Digest held by UWM Libraries.

UWM Libraries: All volumes of the federal digest series and supplements are located on the 3rd floor, West wing. Holdings are:

Modern Federal Practice Digest (covers 1939-1961)                   KF 127 .M6
West's Federal Practice Digest 2nd (covers 1961-1975)             KF 127 .M61x
West's Federal Practice Digest 3rd (covers 1975-to 4th ed)         KF 127 .M613x
      (closing date varies by topic)
West's Federal Practice Digest 4th (dates vary by topics)           KF 127 .M614x

U.S. SUPREME COURT DIGEST

The Digest is an index to all U.S. Supreme Court decisions. The Digest of United States Supreme Court Reports follows the classification system of the publisher, Lawyers Co-Operative, not the West key number system. This gives full citations to the official and unofficial reporters of the Supreme Court, a table of cases, and a word index. Subject index volumes are separate from the Table of Cases index volumes. Annual pocket parts or supplements update this publication. The Digest is in print, but keyword searching of the full text decisions is available in LexisNexis Academic or Westlaw Campus Research.

UWM Libraries: Volumes of the Digest of United States Supreme Court Reports (Lawyer's Edition) are located in the Reference collection, (REF) KF 101 .1 .D5x.

AMERICAN LAW REPORTS

American Law Reports. ALR quick Index.
This single volume index covers the 175 volumes of the first ALR. The UWM Libraries do not own the volumes of the ALR first series, UWM Libraries holding start with the second series.

UWM Libraries: The index volume, American Law Reports. ALR quick Index is located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 132 .A45x Index.
ALR quick index.
This index covers the ALR 3rd, 4th, and 5th series. The UWM Libraries have the 1998-1999 editions only.

UWM Libraries: The index, ALR quick index, is located on 3rd floor, West Wing, KF 132 .6 .A545.
ALR Index: covering ALR 2d, ALR 3d, ALR 4th, ALR 5th, vols.1-8, ALR Fed., vols. 1-110, L Ed 2d, vols.1-110; also containing table of laws, rules and regulations, annotation history table.
The ALR Index is an cumulated index to the annotations in the volumes of the American Law Reports and the United States Supreme Court Reports (Lawyer's Edition) as mentioned in the full title. Terminology is "descriptive of specific things, acts, persons, and places...both legal and facutal terms and concepts."

UWM Libraries: The ALR Index is located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 132 .6 .I53x 1992. Current indexing is available via Westlaw Campus Research.
Permanent Digest of American Law Reports annotated covering vols. 1-175 ALR.
This index covers the first series of ALR. The UWM Libraries do not own the volumes of the first series of ALR.

UWM Libraries: The Permanent Digest 12 volume set is located in Compact Shelving-East, KF 132 .A448x.

DESCRIPTIVE WORD INDEXES

Descriptive word indexes use common terms as access points to the Digests. Each index entry refers to the appropriate TOPIC and key number in the digests. Using the descriptive word index may be the best method to begin using the indexes. There is a descriptive word index for the General Digest, each Decennial Digest, and for each state/regional digest.

UWM Libraries: Any holdings of a descriptive word index are shelved as part of the digest that index covers, often as the index part of a specific volume.

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1.C.7: JUDICIAL LAW - SUBJECT ACCESS - ENCYCLOPEDIAS/DICTIONARIES

AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE, 2nd

This legal encyclopedia, published by Lawyers Co-Operative, is "a modern comprehensive text statement of American law". American Jurisprudence, 2nd (AmJur2d), is intended for use by attorneys and the terminology may be more technical than appreciated by non-lawyers. Citations are made to select federal and state court cases. The print AmJur2d is updated with annual pocket parts, and irregularly revised volumes.

UWM Libraries: American Jurisprudence 2nd, is part of the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research.

CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM

This legal encyclopedia, published by Thomson/West Publishing, is alphabetical by legal topic. Corpus Juris Secundum (CJS) is intended for use by attorneys and the terminology may be too technical for non-lawyers. CJS is updated with annual pocket parts, and irregularly revised volumes; the library keeps only the current edition of individual volumes. CJS has citations to reported federal and state cases.

UWM Libraries: Corpus Juris Secundum is located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 154 .C62x. Updates of this title are through 2002; see American Jurisprudence for more current information.

WORDS AND PHRASES

This set is, basically, an encyclopedia of definitions and interpretations of legally significant words and/or phrases from legal cases. Words and Phrases is an alphabetical arrangement of thousands of words and/or phrases followed by abstracts of judicial decisions which have interpreted or defined those words and/or phrases. The main set is supplemented with annual pocket parts. The term "words and phrases" may also be used to indicate a subject index in other publications, especially those by Thomson/West Publishing.

UWM Libraries: Words and Phrases is located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 156 .W6712 1964; updates are current through 2006/2007.

DESCRIPTIVE WORD INDEXES

Not a separate publication, but these sections in legal resources generally use more common terms to use to start a search in the Digest series of publications. See above.

    Section 4.A.    Legal Information: Selected Reference Sources

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1.C.8: JUDICIAL LAW - SUBJECT ACCESS - CITATORS

Courts generally follow the policy known as "STARE DECISIS" - following common law and upholding precedents established by prior court cases. Therefore, locating court cases which refer to, or CITE, a known case, is important in legal research.
A citator provides a means by which any reported case may be checked to see when another court has cited the decision. The main purpose of a citator is to verify the current status of a case in order to establish whether it is still effective law or has been reversed, overruled, or it's authority in any way diminished. SHEPARD'S publishes the most comprehensive system of case citators. Shepard's citators exist for the reporters of individual states, regions of the National Reporter System, the lower federal courts, and the U. S. Supreme Court. In Shepard's citators, the court decisions are listed by volume and page in bold-face type. Under the bold-face citation (the cited case) are the correct citations to other court decisions which cited that case (the citing cases). Reviewing the process of citing, or "shepardizing" a print case can be studied at http://law.lexisnexis.com/shepards.

SHEPARD'S IN THE UWM Libraries:

The UWM Libraries have the latest bound edition of print citators, all regions, in the general stacks, but no current access to print or online regional citators except for Wisconsin information. The citator for Wisconsin (not the Northwestern) is in paper and part of the Reference collection ( Section 2.A.3).

NATIONAL REPORTER SYSTEM - REGIONAL REPORTERS
Shepard's Atlantic Reporter Citations, 1994 edKF 135 .A72 S5
Shepard's Northeastern Reporter Citations, 1995 edKF 135 .N62 S5
Shepard's Northwestern Reporter Citations, 1993 edKF 135 .N717x S5
Shepard's Pacific Reporter Citations, 5ed (1994)KF 135 .P22 S53
Shepard's Southeastern Reporter Citations, 1994 edKF 135 .S62 S45
Shepard's Southern Reporter Citations, 4ed (1994)KF 135 .S82 S5
Shepard's Southwestern Reporter Citations, 1993 edKF 135 .S72 S45

FEDERAL CITATIONS
Shepard's United States Citations covers federal cases citing the U.S. Constitution, United States Code, U.S. Supreme Court opinions, and Rules from various courts.
UWM Libraries: The paper volumes are located on 3rd floor, West wing; holdings are not current.
Shepard's United States Citations. Cases, 7ed (1994); volumes are located with the call number KF 101 .2 .S54.
Shepard's United States Citations. Statutes, Court Rules, 7ed (1986) and cumulative supplement (1987-1992); volumes are located with the call number KF 101 .2 .S542x.
Shepard's United States Supreme Court Case Names Citator; located with the call number KF 101 .2 .S55.

UWM Libraries: See the electronic database LexisNexis Academic for current holdings of Shepard's citators.

Shepard's Federal Citations covers cases reported in the Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, Federal Rules Decisions, and the United States Court of Claims reports.

UWM Libraries: Print volumes of Shepard's Federal Citations, 8ed (1995), are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 105 .2 .S42; for more current information, use the electronic database LexisNexis Academic.

FEDERAL/STATE CITATIONS
Shepard's Acts and Cases by Popular Names is a compilation of popular, or commonly used, names by which federal and state acts/laws and court cases have been referred to or cited, giving the official citation to that act or case. UWM Libraries keeps the latest edition and supplement only.

UWM Libraries: The Shepard's Acts and Cases by Popular Names, Federal and State is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KF 80 .S5.

STATE CITATIONS

Wisconsin Citator Information - see under "Wisconsin," Section 2.A.3.

    SEARCH NOTE:
While the geographic breakdowns for the reporters and the citators are the same, the SPELLING OF SOME OF THE BREAKDOWNS ARE DIFFERENT (e.g., Southeastern or South Eastern) and will therefore not be retrieved under the same search strategy. Some have had slight variations in title over the years, and these, also, may show the geographic spelling variations.

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SECTION 2:     WISCONSIN and MILWAUKEE

For one of the best sources of basic information on Wisconsin - the legislature, court system, state associations, statistics - use the Wisconsin Blue Book. One of the best such guides of all states, there is a wealth of information on the state in this biennial volume. The Wisconsin Blue Book is located in the Reference collection, (REF) JK 6031. As part of the UW Digital Collections, all volumes of the Wisconsin Blue Book are available electronically.

http://www.legis.state.wi.us/lrb/pubs/bluebook.htm
http://www.legis.state.wi.us/lrb/bb/05bb/index.htm
http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/WI/subcollections/WIBlueBksAbout.shtml

In 2006, the Legislative Reference Bureau published a 25page pamphlet as part of their Wisconsin Briefs series (JK 6074 .A22x,) entitled "Researching Legislative History in Wisconsin," publication number 6-10. This guide lists sources and methods for researching the legislative history of a Wisconsin Statute. The electronic version is available at http://www.legis.state.wi.us/lrb/pubs/wb/06wb10.pdf.

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2.A:     WISCONSIN STATE COURTS

WISCONSIN SUPREME COURT

The Wisconsin Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Like the U.S. Supreme Court, the Wisconsin Supreme Court determines, at its own discretion, which cases it will hear. Supreme Court decisions are published in commercial publications.

See Wisconsin Reports (below) for access information.

WISCONSIN COURT OF APPEALS

The state Court of Appeals was established in 1978 as a result of court reorganization. The state is divided into four Court of Appeals districts, with primary offices in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Wausau, and Madison. State Circuit Court decisions may be appealed to the Wisconsin Court of Appeals. Many Wisconsin Court of Appeals opinions are unpublished and only accessible as slip opinions from the court clerk or larger law libraries; others may be published with the decisions of the state Supreme Court.

WISCONSIN MUNICIPAL COURTS

Municipal courts can be created by cities, towns, or villages. Municipal court jurisdiction is limited to offences against ordinances of that city, town, or village. Decisions of municipal courts are not published.

WISCONSIN STATE LAW LIBRARY

A general resource and website of value for Wisconsin is the Wisconsin State Law Library, accessible at http://wilawlibrary.gov.

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2.A.1: WISCONSIN COURT - REPORTERS

WISCONSIN REPORTS

This series, published by Callaghan, has reported decisions of the Wisconsin Supreme Court since 1853 and selected decisions of the Wisconsin Court of Appeals. This title has been published in two series: the first series covered v. 1-275 and the second series began renumbering with volume 1, and continues to date. A citation to the Callaghan's Official Wisconsin Reports {commonly called simply Wisconsin Reports} will include a volume number, set notation, and page, e.g., 92 Wis. 236, 22 Wis.2d 665 {or Wisc.}. Wisconsin may be abbreviated either "Wis." or "Wisc." in different sources.

UWM Libraries: Volumes of Callaghan's Official Wisconsin Reports 2nd Series, are located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2445 .W5x. Volumes for the first series are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KFW 2445 .W5x. UWM Libraries holdings cover vol. 1 (ser.1) - Ser 2. v 1 +.

Current decisions, without headnotes, can be located at http://www.wisbar.org/legalres/. See also the electronic resource, Westlaw Campus Research.

WISCONSIN REPORTER

West's Wisconsin Reporter is a compilation of Wisconsin Supreme Court decisions extracted from the West's North Western Reporter. Volumes (volume numbers and page numbers) do not correspond to those of Callaghan's (usually found in citators). Citations to the Wisconsin Reporter will be given as a citation to the North Western Reporter, not specifically as a Wisconsin citation.

NORTH WESTERN REPORTER

Described earlier as part of the National Reporter System (Section 1.C.4), Wisconsin is covered by the West's North Western Reporter. Refer a user to the North Western Reporter, use the Wisconsin Blue & White Book for parallel citations, or use West's Wisconsin Key Number Digest for a citation to Callaghan's.

UWM Libraries: v. 1 - Ser.2 v.584 (1942-1998) are located on 3rd floor, West wing, KF 135 .N7; all volumes are available via the online Westlaw Campus Research.

WISCONSIN BLUE & WHITE BOOK

This volume consists of cross reference charts between Callaghan's and the Wisconsin Reporter (subset of North Western Reporter) for parallel citations. Annual supplements update the main volume (the latest supplement, as of 10/26/2010, is 1998).

UWM Libraries: The Wisconsin Blue & White Book is located in the Reference collection with the call number (REF) KFW 2445 .W56x 1900z.

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2.A.2: WISCONSIN COURTS - DIGESTS

WEST'S WISCONSIN KEY NUMBER DIGEST

This source provides subject access to opinions in the Wisconsin Reporter and North Western Reporter. The subjects are arranged by West's key number system. Separate volumes have a descriptive word index, table of cases, and defendent/plaintiff table. The Wisconsin Key Number Digest is updated through supplements and annual pocket parts to the main volumes.

UWM Libraries: West's Wisconsin Key Number Digest is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2447 .1 .W47x.

2.A.3: WISCONSIN COURTS - CITATORS

SHEPARD'S WISCONSIN CITATIONS

The Shepard's Wisconsin Citations. Cases and Statues includes every citing reference to court cases in the reporters and to the state statutes made by federal or state courts, law reviews, and legal texts. The main set is kept up-to-date by advance sheets which are cumulated regularly. Sections of this citator cover cases, cases and statutes, statutes and case names.

UWM Libraries: Volumes of the most recent edition, supplements, and advance sheets of the Shepard's Wisconsin Citations. Cases and Statutes are located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2459 .S52x.

SHEPARD'S WISCONSIN CASE NAME CITATOR

This title had been a separate, although supplementary, publication to the main Shepard's Wisconsin citator. With the 1995 edition, the separate parts were combined into one title. The case name section provides case name access to Wisconsin cases. There is a plaintiff/defendant and reverse defendant/plaintiff listing. See volume 4 of above title.

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2.B:     WISCONSIN LAW

2.B.1: WISCONSIN LAW - LEGISLATION

BILLS

Bills are introduced as Senate bills, Assembly bills, or as Joint resolutions {Senate or Assembly}. The bills and resolutions are published in slip format in numerical order, with amendments, amendments to the amendments, etc., also issued in slip format. With an internet site for Wisconsin legislative materials, most bills for the current sessions are available online.

UWM Libraries: The Libraries receive and keep the print bills for the CURRENT session (2 years) only. The BILLS are located in the Reference Annex, lower level West wing. These are housed in blue binders PHYSICALLY LOCATED AT THE END OF THE "K" CALL NUMBER. For online bills, from 1995, check http://www.legis.state.wi.us/.

ACTS

Bills enacted into LAW by the Wisconsin Legislature are referred to as ACTS or CHAPTERS and are numbered chronologically as they are enacted. The ACT does not retain the same number it had as a bill. The ACTS are issued as slip laws. These are occasionally labeled CHAPTER these chapter numbers do not correlate to the chapter numbers used in the statutes. Slip laws are cumulated as the volumes of the Wisconsin Session Laws. Online format varies, but the Wisconsin acts are available back to 1961.

UWM Libraries: The Libraries receive the slip laws as they are published. The ACTS are located in the Reference Annex, lower level, West wing, in blue binders PHYSICALLY LOCATED AT THE END OF THE "K" CALL NUMBER following the bills.

http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/2acts.html
Text of acts back to 1961.
http://www.legis.state.wi.us/billtext.html
Search the text of current laws and bills.
http://nxt.legis.state.wi.us/nxt/gateway.dll/?f=templates$fn=default.htm
Search tool for Wisconsin acts (1995+).

NOTE: Drafting records [microform], which include the acts of each regular session and special session and the drafting records of all related materials, are available at MPL (Periodicals desk) and at Marquette University - Law Library. These microfilmed records are made available at the END of each session only.

INDEX TO BILLS AND ACTS

The Bulletin of the Proceedings of the Wisconsin Legislature (covering Assembly and Senate) indexes the bills and acts by subject and by number. This index has regular cumulative editions throughout each legislative session; the final, cumulative edition is retained by the library. The main volumes are arranged by bill number (separating Assembly bills and Senate bills) with a subject index. The numerical sequence sections contain full status reports for each bill.

UWM Libraries: The current issues of the Bulletin of the Proceedings of the Wisconsin Legislature are located in the Reference Annex, lower level, West wing, adjacent to the blue binders, labelled with the call number (REF) J 89 .W612x, BUT PHYSICALLY LOCATED AT THE END OF THE "K" CALL NUMBER. Earlier editions (final edition only) are located on 3rd floor, West wing under the correct call number.

http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/2acts.html
Text of acts only back to 1961.
http://www.legis.state.wi.us/billtext.html
Search the text of current laws and bills. Text of bills = for current materials, all bills should be available online; text and history.

WISCONSIN LAWS

The laws enacted in the Wisconsin Legislature are referred to as ACTS or CHAPTERS and are numbered chronologically as they are enacted. At the end of each biennial session, the ACTs are cumulated and published in the bound volumes entitled Laws of Wisconsin or Wisconsin Session Laws (title change not two series). The Laws of Wisconsin and Wisconsin Session Laws contain the full text laws as they were passed, not the text of the laws as they are in force. Citations to the Laws of Wisconsin and Wisconsin Session Laws will include set notation, year, and chapter/page number, e.g., Wis.Laws 1905, Ch. 152 or 1975 Wis.Laws 867.

UWM Libraries: Volumes of the Laws of Wisconsin (1853-1909) and Wisconsin Session Laws (1911 +) are located on the 3rd floor, West wing with the call number KFW 2425 .W5x. For full online information, see Acts above: current and acts from 1961 are available.

http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/2acts.html     Text of acts back to 1961

WISCONSIN STATUTES

The Wisconsin Statutes are printed after each biennial session and arrange all the state laws in effect in a broad numerical subject, or CHAPTER, arrangement {range is numbers 1-992, but less than 450 numbers are actually used}. The subject index is at the end of the last volume. A citation to the Wisconsin Statutes will indicate set notation, year, and chapter number, e.g., Wis.Stat. 1981, 47.40. THE OFFICIAL SOURCE IS STILL THE PRINT FOR LEGAL PURPOSES.

UWM Libraries: The most recent edition of the Wisconsin Statutes is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2430 .A2 .W5x. Earlier editions are located on 3rd floor, West wing.

Wisconsin statutes are currently available, in a Folio InfoBase file, on the Internet
at http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/stats.html or check the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

WEST'S WISCONSIN STATUTES ANNOTATED

West's Wisconsin Statutes Annotated follows the same numerical chapter system as the official statutes, but also contains case law annotations and legislative histories. A useful subject index is found in separate volumes. The updating service of supplements, annual pocket parts, and occasional revised volumes keep the Statutes Annotated slightly more current than the biennial Wisconsin Statutes. The supplements are issued as part of the West's Wisconsin Legislative Service.

UWM Libraries: West's Wisconsin Statutes Annotated is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2430 .W52x

UWM Libraries: West's Wisconsin Legislative Service, the updating service, is located in the Reference collection with the same call number, (REF) KFW 2430 .W52x.

ADMINISTRATIVE CODE

The Wisconsin Administrative Code is a compilation of the state agency administrative regulations in force. The volumes are arranged alphabetically by state agency (letter code assigned by the state) and then by a numerical section number. State regulations, like the federal Code of Federal Regulations, are not law, but have the force of law. This looseleaf service has irregular updates; the web version is the most current. Because regulations are arranged by issuing agency, check the subject index to get to the right agency unless that information is known. A table of contents is given with each agency, but no further subject breakdown from the main index. Index section and component sections may be updated at different times. A citation to the Wisconsin Administrative Code will include set notation, letter code of agency, and section number, e.g. Wis.Admin.Code Jus 11.06.

UWM Libraries: The Wisconsin Administrative Code is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2435 .A2; the online is the most current; various sources offer the Code online.

http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/code.htm

ASSEMBLY/SENATE JOURNALS

The Senate Journal and Assembly Journal are the "entries made by the chief clerk" for a specific day. These are communications, letters of appointment, minutes of the Assembly or Senate session, etc. Unlike the Congressional Record, the Journals are not verbatim, but are minutes or synopses of activities. These are published in looseleaf format by session and day, and cumulated for each session. There are no indexes.

UWM Libraries: Issues of the Assembly Journal and Senate Journal for the current legislative session are located in blue binders in the Reference Annex, lower level West wing, adjacent to the bills and acts, labeled with the call number (REF) J 89 .W6 A or (REF) J 89 .W6 S, BUT PHYSICALLY LOCATED AT THE END OF THE "K" CALL NUMBER. Earlier editions (cumulative only) are located on 3rd floor, West wing under the correct call number.

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2.B.2: WISCONSIN LAW - OPINIONS/INTERPRETATION

ATTORNEY GENERAL

The state Attorney General issues written opinions as responses to inquiries by state officials to interpret case law, provide clarification of statutes, and give legal counsel. Although not legally binding, opinions of the Attorney General have persuasive authority. Most opinions, not all, are published in bound volumes. Slip opinions are not available for distribution to libraries.

UWM Libraries: Print volumes of the Opinions of the Attorney General of the State of Wisconsin are located on 3rd floor, West wing with the call number KFW 2840 .5 .A85x. Holdings are v. 1 (1912/13) - v. 81 (1993/94) (ceased publication).

http://www.doj.state.wi.us/ag/
This site has general information and links from the Attorney General; links to the most current opinions.

Follow a link through http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/ to online AG opinions, 1995 +.

INTERPRETATION OF LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

For a "non-exhaustive" list of state legal sources that the Wisconsin Supreme Court may use to help interpret the meaning/history of the state's legal actions, see the list provided in a concurring opinion in 271 Wis. 2d 633. This is found as Section 4.I of this guide.

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2.B.3: WISCONSIN LAW - OPINIONS/INTERPRETATION - SUBJECT ACCESS

ATTORNEY GENERAL

Each volume of the Opinions of the Attorney General has a subject index. The main index covers opinions for the years 1845 through 1972. The 1987 publication is a looseleaf and covers 1973-1990. Each issue of the looseleaf edition is totally cumulative. However, like the published volumes, this is a delayed publication. A cumulative subject index to the published opinions is available; as of February 2008, the most current index is dated 1990. Search http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/index.html for AG opinions.

UWM Libraries: Index Digest to Opinions of the Attorney General of the State of Wisconsin, 1845 through 1972, is located on 3rd floor, West wing, KFW 2840 .A58 B4.

UWM Libraries: The newer, looseleaf, volume, Index Digest to Opinions of the Attorney General of the State of Wisconsin, 1973 continuing, is located on 3rd floor, West wing with the call number KFW 2840 .A58 B4 1987. (No updates beyond 1990 as of October, 2010.)

Online searching will search keyword - see web address above.

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2.C:     MILWAUKEE COUNTY AND CITY LAW

LAWS AFFECTING MILWAUKEE

Many state laws, published as part of the Wisconsin Statutes, directly affect Milwaukee. Milwaukee is the only First Class (special designation not personal rating) city in the state and many statutes will refer to either Milwaukee by name or simply to any "Wisconsin city of First Class designation." Most, but not all of these laws, will be found in the Wisconsin Statutes. THESE LAWS ARE NOT REPRINTED AS PART OF THE MILWAUKEE ORDINANCES - THEY ARE FOUND IN THE STATE STATUTES ONLY.

Other regulations or laws concerning the area are the county and city ordinances.

MILWAUKEE COUNTY

The Milwaukee County Code of General Ordinances is a looseleaf service consisting of the current ordinances in force from the County government.

UWM Libraries: The Milwaukee County Code of General Ordinances is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFW 2999 .M5 M55x.

Check link at: http://www.municode.com/
Check: http://wilawlibrary.gov/topics/ordinances.php
This Wisconsin State Law Library site links to Wisconsin municipal codes (many from
Municode above); a number of cities are available, including Milwaukee
county and city.
Check: http://www.milwaukeecounty.org/
Official Milwaukee County site has general information, including supervisors' districts;
check "Directory: County Clerk, Office of: Milwaukee County Ordinances" for a link
to the county code, available from Municode.

MILWAUKEE CITY

The Milwaukee Code of Ordinances is a looseleaf service consisting of the current ordinances in force issued from the Common Council. Each of the three volumes is updated on a different schedule.

UWM Libraries: The Milwaukee Code of Ordinances is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFX 1851 .A6 1941.

See also: http://city.milwaukee.gov/ordinances

The Milwaukee City Charter, also published by the authority of the Common Council, is a compilation of laws affecting the City of Milwaukee. The current edition includes the original charter and incorporates changes or amendments enacted by the Milwaukee Common Council and session laws adopted by the Wisconsin State Legislature which affect the city but are not published in the Wisconsin Statutes. This looseleaf service is updated regularly.

UWM Libraries: The Milwaukee City Charter is located in the Reference collection, (REF) KFX 1851 .A6 1984.

Check: http://www.milwaukee.gov/DISPLAY/ROUTER.ASP?DOCID=1143
This is Milwaukee's site for the city charter and ordinances.

Check: http://wilawlibrary.gov/topics/ordinances.php
This Wisconsin State Law Library site links to Wisconsin municipal codes (many from
Municode above); a number of cities are available, including Milwaukee
county and city.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 2 / Return to Index

2.D:     WISCONSIN MUNICIPAL LAW

A good source for online Wisconsin municipal codes is via the Wisconsin State Law Library:

http://wilawlibrary.gov/topics/ordinances.php


SECTION 3:     STATES, EXCLUDING WISCONSIN

3.A:     STATE LAWS

The UWM Libraries do not carry state statutes or administrative codes for any state other than Wisconsin. Occasionally specialized looseleaf services may include states' laws on that given topic, or articles may refer to specific state laws. Marquette University Law Library does have a few states, but no longer carries all 50 states.

General information about selected state laws may be found in the set Subject Compilations of State Laws, (1960-1990). The volumes are a research guide and bibliography on compilations of states laws.

UWM Libraries: Volumes of the Subject Compilations of State Laws are located in compact shelving west, KF 240 .S795.

All states have Internet web sites for their state statutes. Most are free, although some are fee-based; some are straight text, although more and more are searchable. See Section 4.H and appendices for further information on official state sites.

Administrative regulations also exist for all states, although many are not published. UWM Libraries carry no regulations for states other than Wisconsin. Most have internet sites available, but some would only be obtained by contacting the specific state and department of interest. See Section 4.H and appendices for further information on official state sites.

For state statutes and codes also check the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 3 / Return to Index

3.B:     STATE SUPREME COURTS

Decisions of the Supreme Courts of the various states are located in the various Regional Reporters.

Section 1.C.4 for more information on these reporters

Section 4.G for an alphabetical listing by state as to which Regional Reporter is appropriate

A number of states have Internet web sites for their state supreme court decisions. Some are fee-based, some are free; some are straight text, some are searchable.

For state supreme court decisions; check the electronic Westlaw Campus Research.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 3 / Return to Index


SECTION 4:     GENERAL INFORMATION

4.A:     LEGAL INFORMATION: SELECTED REFERENCE SOURCES

DICTIONARIES/ENCYCLOPEDIAS

American Jurisprudence is a standard legal encyclopedia geared for attorneys, not laypersons; annual
pocket parts and index and updated volumes keep this encyclopedia current.
Westlaw Campus Research for current holdings

Black's Law Dictionary is a standard one volume dictionary of legal terms.
{REF) KF 156 .B53 2009

Corpus Juris Secundum is a standard legal encyclopedia geared for attorneys, not laypersons; annual
pocket parts and index and updated volumes keep this encyclopedia current.
KF 154 .C62x       [print edition current to 2002; see American Jurisprudence]

Nolo's Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, 5ed & 4ed, are more popular resources, an electronic laypersons'
encyclopedia available via netLibrary, check PantherCat for access.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law is a more scholarly encylopedia than Nolo's but still aimed at the
layperson.
(REF) KF 154 .W47 1998

DIRECTORIES

Directory of Wisconsin District Attorneys gives telephone directory information for the state.
KF 190 .W57x (2001)

Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory is the major directory for the law field, listing lawyers and law firms by
state and city.
http://www.martindale.com/     or     online LexisNexis Academic

Wisconsin Court System Directory is a telephone directory of judges and court reports for the state.
(REF) KFW 2908 .A19 W53x (2000)

Wisconsin Judges Directory is a listing of judges at all levels in the state.
(REF) KFW 2908 .A19 W53x

Wisconsin Lawyer Resource Directory gives names of individuals, brief information on law firms, and other
pertinent information.
(REF) KF 332 .W51x A3

Wisconsin Lawyer Search         http://www.wisbar.org/lawyersearch/

LEGAL RESEARCH
Finding the Law: a Workbook on Legal Research for Laypersons(REF) KF 240 .C58x 1982
Fundamentals of Legal Research(REF) KF 240 .J3 1987
How to Find the Law       [9ed](REF) KF 240 .C538 1989
Introduction to Legal Materials: a manual for non-law librarians in Wisconsin(REF) KF 240 .I58x 1989
http://www.aallnet.org/chapter/llaw/paliguide/index.htm
Legal Research and Writing for ParalegalsKF 240 .B68 1998
Legal Research: How to Find and Understand the Law       [10ed, 2002]EBSCO ebook Collection
Legal Research in a Nutshell       [5ed](REF) KF 240 .C54 1992

GENERAL
ALWD Citation Manual [2ed](REF) KF 245 .A45 2003
Bluebook: a Uniform System of Citation(REF) KF 245 .B58 (2000)
Dictionary of Legal Abbreviations Used in American Law Books [2ed](REF) KF 246 .B46 1985
various RIS Library guides

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

 

4.B:     LEGAL RESEARCH: PERIODICAL INDEXES

Disclaimer: to avoid problems of URL changes, etc., please access any UWM Libraries susbscription databases, including Westlaw Campus Research and LexisNexis, via the UWM Libraries home page, Resources A-Z list.

Legal Journals:
Index to Legal Periodicals and Books<
The most comprehensive index for legal journals and law reviews; title varies (online title is Legal Periodicals and Books).
1926-1999/2000KF 8 .I45x
1981 +Articles: Resources A-Z

LexisNexis Academic
Broad coverage of journals in current events and business, along with the major law reviews.
Dates varyArticles: Resources A-Z

Westlaw Campus Research
Covers all the major law reviews along with other legal resources.
Dates varyArticles: Resources A-Z

Index to Periodical Articles Related to Law
Covers legal periodicals.
1958-1988KF 8 .I5x

Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals
Basic coverage of foreign legal journals.
1960-1978(CS/E) Z 695 .1 .L3 I5

Criminal Justice Resources:
Criminal Justice Abstracts
Covers major criminal justice periodicals; title varies.
1968-2008(CS/W) HV 6001 .C7x
1986 +Articles: Resources A-Z

Criminal Justice Periodical Index (CJPI)
A major index for criminal justice periodical literature.
1976-1998(CS/W) HV 6001 .C73x

National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Covers major federal publications, mostly monographic, from NCJRS and some other criminal justice resources.
1972 +Articles: Resources A-Z

Related Subjects:
Check the UWM Libraries Homepage: Resources by Subject/Major for available online indexing and abstracting services.
For related background or supportive information, use indexes for social sciences and political science:
CQ Researcher Online
Ingenta
PAIS International
Social Sciences Full Text
Worldwide Political Science Abstracts
For more specialized supportive information, use an index for a specific field which may include articles covering legal aspects from the professional journals of that field:
America: History and Life
Business Source Elite
ERIC (education)
Medline
Military and Government Collection
Public Administration Abstracts
Women's Studies International

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

4.C:     LEGAL RESEARCH: SUBSCRIPTION DATABASES

Online databases or state/federal websites cover almost all apsects of law as stated throughout the guide. Subscription databases include the periodical indexes mentioned in Section 4.B, as well as the broader ones listed here.

LexisNexis Academic
Westlaw Campus Research

Both of these are mentioned throughout the guide, this is just a brief summary. The UWM Libraries subscribe to an academic version of both Westlaw and LexisNexis - there are resources and search capabilities available from both companies that the Libraries does not subscribe to, therefore does not have access to.

LexisNexis Academic

United States Code, Code of Federal Regulations, Federal Register, Shepard's citations for the U.S Supreme Court, federal and state court cases, state statutes, federal and state Attorney General opinions, U.S. patent information from 1971, some Canadian and international legal resources, Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, law reviews and significant general, business, and current events periodical coverage.

Search by subject or citation.

Westlaw Campus Research

United States Code Annotated, Code of Federal Regulations, Federal Register, American Law Reports, federal and state law cases (1944 +), federal legislative materials, state statutes and administrative codes, the legal encyclopedia American Jurisprudence 2ed, and law reviews.

Search by subject or citation.

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4.D:     CLUES FOR LEGAL RESEARCH

Know as much as possible about what you are looking for, such as:

DATE Saves time in knowing which sources and physical locations needed.

WHAT What jurisdiction are you looking for - Wisconsin, Federal, or another state?

What is it that you're looking for - a bill, a law, a regulation, a court decision?

If it's a law - do you want the wording of the law as it is on the books (in force) or as the actual law passed?

If it's a bill - is it from the current session?

If it's a regulation - is the regulation still in effect?

If it's a court decision - what court?

If you want material about a court case, law, etc. you may need monographs or a periodical index, not the resources for the laws, case decisions, etc.

SUBJECT What is the subject? Unless you have a bill number, law number, regulation citation, court case citation, etc., the information must be looked up in a subject index. THE DIFFERENT INDEXES MAY NOT USE THE SAME TERMINOLOGY - and they tend to use legal terminology, not layperson's terms.

Terminology can be a problem:
CHAPTER      a law passed in Wisconsin can be called a chapter or an act (in pure numerical order as passed), yet a chapter is also the numerical sequence that the Wisconsin Statutes are divided into as broad subject fields; the Statutes chapter number does not relate to the chapter (law) number assigned when passed

CODE      for Wisconsin, the Code is the Administrative Code, departmental regulations while for other states, the Code will refer to the laws as they are in force, the equivalent of the Wisconsin statutes

STATUTE      for Wisconsin, statutes refer to the laws as they are on the books, while for the federal government, statutes are the laws as they are passed (other states may not use the word statutes as Wisconsin does)

TITLE      a title number can be a section of a federal law passed, yet is also the numerical sequence that the United States Code and the Code of Federal Regulations are divided into as broad subject fields; the title number (subject) assigned for the USC/CFR does not relate to a title (section) number of any given law - and to make matters worse, the 50 subject titles that the USC is divided into are not exactly the same 50 subject titles that the CFR uses

Law content location:

Any single law passed may affect multiple chapters/titles of the corresponding collection of laws, Wisconsin Statutes or United States Code, and would be found split into those subject areas (chapters or titles) that the law covers, not located all in one place; these sources are a subject arrangement to the laws in force.

A law passed covering one or multiple subjects will be located in one place, not divided by subjects, in the Wisconsin Session Laws or United States Statutes at Large; these sources are a purely numerical sequence of laws as they are passed.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

4.E:     ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

This list is the abbreviations most frequently seen and are used in this guide. Abbreviations found in citations may be located by using one of the legal resources as mentioned in Section 4.A. Abbreviations may or may not be found with periods, e.g., USC or U.S.C. A number in the abbreviation usually notes a publication series. The symbols are frequently found within legal resources.

A. or A.2dAtlantic Reporter
ALRAmerican Law Reports
AmJur2dAmerican Jurisprudence, 2nd edition
CFRCode of Federal Regulations
CJSCorpus Juris Secundum
F or F. 2d or F. 3d Federal Reporter
FRFederal Register
F.SuppFederal Supplement
Fed RegFederal Register
F.R.D.Federal Rules Decisions
L.Ed or L.Ed2dUnited States Supreme Court Reports {Lawyer's Edition}
L.W.United States Law Week
N.E. or N.E.2dNorth Eastern Reporter
N.W. or N.W.2dNorth Western Reporter
P. or P.2dPacific Reporter
P.L.public law (slip law)
S.Ct.Supreme Court Reporter
S.E or S.E.2dSouth Eastern Reporter
S.W. or S.W.2dSouth Western Reporter
So. or So.2dSouthern Reporter
Stat.Statutes at Large
U.S.United States Reports
USCUnited States Code
USCAUnited States Code Annotated
USCCANUnited States Code Congressional and Administrative News
Wis. or Wis.2dCallaghan's Official Wisconsin Reports
Wis.LawsLaws of Wisconsin
Wis.Stat.Wisconsin Statutes
Paragraph or Section: followed by a number, used in some legal sources, particularly looseleaf services
§Section: followed by a number, used in many legal sources, mainly federal

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4.F.     STATES: NATIONAL REPORTER SYSTEM & COURT OF APPEALS

Alphabetical listing by state indicating which regional reporter, in the National Reporter system, and which federal Court of Appeals (aka Circuit court) district that state belongs to.

STATEREGIONAL
REPORTER
FEDERAL COURT
of APPEALS District

(Federal Reporter)
AlabamaSouthern11th
AlaskaPacific9th
ArizonaPacific9th
ArkansasSouth Western8th
CaliforniaPacific9th
ColoradoPacific10th
ConnecticutAtlantic2nd
DelawareAtlantic3rd
FloridaSouthern11th
GeorgiaSouth Eastern11th
HawaiiPacific9th
IdahoPacific9th
IllinoisNorth Eastern7th
IndianaNorth Eastern7th
IowaNorth Western8th
KansasPacific10th
KentuckySouth Western6th
LouisianaSouthern5th
MaineAtlantic1st
MarylandAtlantic4th
MassachusettsNorth Eastern1st
MichiganNorth Western6th
MinnesotaNorth Western8th
MississippiSouthern5th
MissouriSouth Western8th
MontanaPacific9th
NebraskaNorth Western8th
NevadaPacific9th
New HampshireAtlantic1st
New JerseyAtlantic3rd
New MexicoPacific10th
New YorkNorth Eastern2nd
North CarolinaSouth Eastern4th
North DakotaNorth Western8th
OhioNorth Eastern6th
OklahomaPacific10th
OregonPacific9th
PennsylvaniaAtlantic3rd
Rhode IslandAtlantic1st
South CarolinaSouth Eastern4th
South DakotaNorth Western8th
TennesseeSouth Western6th
TexasSouth Western5th
UtahPacific10th
VermontAtlantic2nd
VirginiaSouth Eastern4th
WashingtonPacific9th
West VirginiaSouth Eastern4th
WisconsinNorth Western7th
WyomingPacific10th

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

4.G:     WISCONSIN vs UNITED STATES COMPARISON CHART

Click on this sentence to access the comparison chart, located after the main guide before the other appendices.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

4.H:     STATE WEBSITES GUIDE

The following table, covering this section, is a guide indicating whether websites exist for the named categories for each of the states.

There are multiple sites for each state and while the overall state homepage is a good place to start, it is not the only site that may need to be checked. Rarely are all the categories included in the table mentioned and/or linked from any single umbrella source. State supreme court decisions are usually the "slip" version and often do not have headnotes or any final editing before true publications.

State statutes, codes, bills, laws, regulations, constitutions, attorney general opinions, and anything related, may or may not be searchable by keyword, although more and more are adding search engines to these files. While some are purely text, many have others have good searching - although in those cases you see no text until you search and retrieve that which is found by the search. Many have only recent materials, some have only older materials and no current - they all vary.

All are updated on a irregular basis and most are adding more and more material everytime.

Website URLs are listed in the appendices; see the RIS library guide: State Legal Sites (online only, no print copies), available at http://www.uwm.edu/Library/ris/guides/legal00.htm. The sections of this website guide includes links for state Statutes/Codes, state Adminstrative Codes/Rules, state Constitutions, state Attorney General's opinions, and state's Supreme Courts.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

4.I:     WISCONSIN SOURCES FOR COURT INTERPRETATION OF LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS

Click on this sentence to access this section.

Return to Table of Contents / Return to Top of Section 4 / Return to Index

 

llb 12 August 2011


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