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Canadian Brownfields Bibliography

Christopher De Sousa, Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Bolton Hall, Room 410, PO Box 413, Milwaukee, WI, 53201-0413 U.S.A.
414 229-4874 phone, 414 229-3981 fax,

Please contact Chris De Sousa to suggest additional references

Abdel-Aziz, A. (2001) "Obstacles to Brownfield Redevelopment." HazMat Magazine, June/July 2001.

Abdel-Aziz, A. and Elliot, S. (2002) "Brownfields Development - What is Needed for a Successful Program in Canada." Environmental Law V (3), 298.

Abdel-Aziz, A. (2004a) Regulatory Liability. The Canadian Brownfields Manual: Butterworths, October 2004.

Abdel-Aziz, A., Kirby, D., Elliott, S. and S. Love. (2001). "Ontario Becomes the First Province to Introduce Brownfield Legislation." Osler Update Newsletter, May 25, 2001.

Andrews, J. H. (1999) "The TIFS Go On." Planning Practice January, 8-11.

AMO Brownfields Taskforce (2000) Promoting Municipal Leadership in Brownfields Redevelopment: Recommendations in support of the Provincial Review of Brownfields policy. Policy Report, Association of Municipalities of Ontario, October 20, 2000.

Baker, B. G. (1997) Brownfield Remediation: what will work in Ontario? Unpublished master's thesis, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, Ontario.

Beaulieu, M. (2002) Lessons Learned from Revi-Sols: A Successful Economical Assistance Program Aimed to Foster Brownfields Revitalization in Canada (Quebec) Urban Areas. Quebec: Ministère de l'Environment du Québec.

Benazon, N. (1995) "Soil remediation: a practical overview of Canadian cleanup strategies and commercially available technology." Hazardous Materials Management 7(5), 10-26.

Bergman, B. and Demont, J. (2002) "Fouling Our Cities." Maclean's 18 (29 July), 21.

Bjelland, M. (2004) "Reclaiming brownfields sites: From toxic legacies to sustainable communities." In D. G. Jannelle, B. Warf, and K. Hansen, eds. WorldMinds: Geographical Perspectives on 100 Problems. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 197-202.

Boire, G and C. Little. (2004) The Role of Insurance. The Canadian Brownfields Manual: Butterworths, October 2004.

Boisseau, P. (2001) "Damaged properties could be a gold mine for municipal governments: the solution to reclaiming brownfields lies in a co-ordinated approach." Forum 25:6, November/December 2001, 32-37.

Bowman, M., Curpen, R. and D. Kirby. (2002) "Brownfields legislation." Municipal World 112:1, January 2002, 7-11.

Brantford Brownfields Committee (2002) Draft Brownfields Strategic Action Plan. Brantford: Community Development Report 2002-189.

Bressler, A.J. (2000) Brownfield Redevelopment: A Risk Versus Reward Proposition. International Risk Management Institute. Available at

Brunk, C., Haworth, L. and Lee, B. (1991) Value Assumptions in Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Alachlor Controversy. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

Cairney T. and Hobson D.M. (Eds.) (1998) Contaminated land: problems and solutions. London: E and FN Spon.

Cairney, T. (1995) The re-use of contaminated land: a handbook of risk assessment. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.

Campbell, M. and McKenna, S. (1994) "Utilizing the city of Toronto municipal development review process to ensure proper clean-up of contaminated sites." Environmental Health Review 38(4), 88-94.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (1997) Conventional and Alternative Development Patterns - Phase 1: Infrastructure Costs. Ottawa: CMHC.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (1997) Guidance Document on the Management of Contaminated Sites in Canada. Winnipeg: CCME.

CCME (1991) Interim Canadian Environmental Quality Criteria for Contaminated Sites. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. For information see

CCME (1993) Contaminated Site Liability Report: Recommended Principles for a Consistent Approach across Canada. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Core Group on Contaminated Site Liability.

CCME (1996) Guidance Manual for Developing Site-specific Soil Quality Remediation Objectives for Contaminated Sites in Canada. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.

CCME (1997) Recommended Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.

Canadian Urban Institute (2003). Brownfielder Report.

Ceschi-Smith, M. and Reniers, M. (2001) "Brantford's Brownfields Initiative-Reclaiming a community." The Ontario Planning Journal 16(1), 3-4.

Chalifour, N. (2004) Approaches to Mitigating the Liability Challenge. The Canadian Brownfields Manual: Butterworths, October 2004.

Chalifour, N. and A. Abdel-Aziz. (2004) Introduction to Part II, Liability Considerations for Brownfields Redevelopment. The Canadian Brownfields Manual: Butterworths, October 2004.

Chalifour, N., McGuinty, D. and A. Abdel-Aziz. (2004) Federal Initiatives, The Canadian Brownfields Manual: Butterworths, October 2004.

Chamberlain, A. (2003) "Burgeoning Brownfields Business." HazMat Magazine, February/March 2003.

City of Hamilton (1997) Procedures for Identification/Remediation of Potentially Contaminated Sites under the Planning Act Application Review Process. Report PLA97027, October 1997.

City of Vancouver Planning Department (1999) Southeast False Creek Policy Statement: Toward a Sustainable Urban Neighborhood and a Major Park in Southeast False Creek. Vancouver: City of Vancouver Planning Department.

CMHC (2003a) Residential Intensification Case Studies: Municipal Initiatives. (Research Report: Healthy Housing and Communities Series). Ottawa.

CMHC (2003b) "Safe Housing for Lightly Contaminated Sites." (Research Highlights, Technical Series 03-134) Ottawa.

CMHC (2004). Residential Intensification Case Studies: Built Projects. (Research Report: Healthy Housing and Communities Series). Ottawa.

Coburn, F. F. (2002) "Ontario Enacts new Brownfield Legislation." Borden Ladner Gervais Environmental Law News, Winter, 1-4. Council of Great Lakes Governors. 1998. A Blueprint for Brownfield Redevelopment.

Delcan, Golder Associates and McCarthy Tetrault. (1997a) Removing Barriers to the Redevelopment of Contaminated Sites for Housing. CMHC: Ottawa.

Delcan, Golder Associates and McCarthy Tetrault. (1997b) Urban Brownfields: Case Studies for Sustainable Economic Development - The Canadian Example. CMHC: Ottawa.

De Sousa, C. (2000) "Brownfield Redevelopment versus Greenfield Development: A private sector perspective on the costs and risks associated with brownfield redevelopment in the Greater Toronto Area." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 43(6), 831-853.

De Sousa, C. (2001) "Contaminated Sites Management: The Canadian situation in international context." Journal of Environmental Management 62(2), 131-154.

De Sousa, C. (2002a) "Brownfield redevelopment in Toronto: an examination of past trends and future prospects." Land Use Policy 19(4), 297-309.

De Sousa, C. (2002b) "Measuring the public costs and benefits of brownfield versus greenfield development in the Greater Toronto Area." Environment and Planning B 29(2), 251-280.

De Sousa, C. (2003a) Positioning Brownfields as an Essential Building Block for Sustainable Communities: Keynote Address. Paper presented to Brownfields 2003: The Changing Landscape, October 23, 2003, available at: Canadian Urban Institute.

De Sousa, C. (2003) "Turning Brownfields into Green Space in the City of Toronto." Landscape and Urban Planning 62, 181.

deVries, R. (1998) "Is Ontario winning the site redevelopment race? An Industry Perspective." Environmental Science and Engineering, January 1998.

FCM. (2004). FCM web site.

Fenn, M. (2002) Brownfields: Ontario's Sensible "Low-grant" Approach to Cleanup and Redevelopment of Contaminated Properties. Paper presented at the Presentation to Brownfields 2002 conference, Charlotte, NC.

Ford, G. J., Nadarajah, R. and Winfield, M. S. (1997) Key Issues in and Policy Options for the Remediation of Contaminated Sites in Canada and the Prevention of Future Problems. Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy.

Ford, G., Macdonald, D. and Winfield, M. (1994) "Who Pays for Past Sins? Policy Issues Surrounding Contaminated Site Remediation in Canada." Alternatives 20, 28-34.

Gaudet, C., Bradley, A., Bonnell, M., and Wong, M. (1992) Canadian Approaches to Establishing Cleanup Levels for Contaminated Sites. In E. Calabrese and P. Kostecki, eds., Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils and Groundwater: Volume 2. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers, 49-66.

Gertler, M., Berridge Lewinberg Greenberg Dark Gabor ltd., and the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto (1995) Adapting to New Realities: Industrial Land Outlook for Metropolitan Toronto, Durham, York, Halton, Peel, Hamilton-Wentworth and Waterloo. Toronto: Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto.

Golder Associates Ltd. (1997) Evaluation of Site-specific Risk Assessment for Contaminated Lands. Prepared for CMHC (Research and Development Highlights, Technical series 97-113). Ottawa.

Government of Canada, Contaminated Sites Management Working Group (1999) A Federal Approach to Contaminated Sites. Available at

Government of Canada, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (2000) Federal Contaminated Sites and Solid Waste Landfills Inventory. Available at

Government of Canada, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (2002) Contaminated Sites Management Policy. Available at

Government of Canada, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (2002) Policy on Accounting for Costs and Liabilities Related to Contaminated Sites. Available at

Granda, P. R. (2003) "Aspects Contractuels et Recours en Matière de Terrains Contaminés." Insight 23-24 (January), Section 4.

Griffiths, L. (1996) Contaminated Property in Canada. Toronto: Carswell, Thompson Professional Publishing.

Hara Associates (2003) Market Failures and the Optimal Use of Brownfield Redevelopment Policy Instruments. Report prepared for the NRTEE. Ottawa.

Havaleshka, D. (2003) "Reclaiming Toxic Ground." Maclean's August 11, 2003.

Hemson Consulting (1998) Retaining Employment Lands - Morningside Heights. A Report to the City of Toronto Economic Development, Tourism & Culture.

Huther, A. (1997) Brownfields and Urban Development - The Reuse of Industrial Sites for Residential Use in the City of Toronto. Masters of Arts research paper, University of Toronto, Department of Geography.

ICF Consulting and E.P. Systems Group Inc. (1999) Assessment of State Initiatives to promote Brownfield Redevelopment of Brownfields prepared for U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (HC #5966, Task Order 13), December 1999.

International Brownfields Exchange (2002) The Canadian Experience, in the Nature of Possibility: Experiences in Risk-based Decision Making, IBE 2000-2002, 7-11.

Kirby, D., Elliott, S., and George Boire. (2004). "Turning brownfields green: municipal covenants and insurance." Municipal World 114:5, May 2004, 11-14.

Lewington, J. (2002). "Industrial Strength" (article on Goderham and Worts site in Toronto). Report on Business Magazine, September 2002.

MacNair, J. (2004) "Valuation of Contaminated Properties: A Canadian Perspective." Canadian Appraiser Winter 2004, pp. 37-42.

Martin, I., Visser, W. and Bardos, P. (1996) Review of the Policy Papers Presented to the NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on Research, Development and Evaluation of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Soil and Groundwater. London: UK Department of the Environment and Centre for Research into the Built Environment, Nottingham-Trent University.

M.M. Dillon Ltd., Global Risk Management Corporation and Tecsult. (1996). The Financial Services Sector and Brownfield Redevelopment. September 1996. NRTEE, CMHC: Ottawa.

NRTEE (1996a) Contaminated Sites Issues in Canada. Report prepared by Slmcleod consulting. Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Financial Services Task Force.

NRTEE (1996b) The Financial Services Sector and Brownfield Redevelopment. Report prepared by MM Dillon Limited, Global Risk Management Corporation, and Tecsult. Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Financial Services Task Force. For information see

NRTEE (1996c) Survey of Some Senior Governments in Canada Regarding: Implementation of CCME Principles on Contaminated Site Liability; Their Response to Brownfields; and Improving Site Specific Information on the Environmental Condition of Land. Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Financial Services Task Force.

NRTEE (1997a) Backgrounder: Improving Site-Specific Data on the Environmental Condition of Land. Ottawa: NRTEE.

NRTEE (1997b) Removing Barriers: Redeveloping Contaminated Lands for Housing. Report prepared by Delcan Corporation, Golder Associates Ltd. and McCarthy-Tetrault. Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.

NRTEE (1998a) State of the Debate: Greening Canada's Brownfield Sites. Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy.

NRTEE (2003) Cleaning up the past, building the future: A national brownfield redevelopment strategy for Canada. Ottawa: NRTEE.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment (1997) Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario.

Ontario Ministry of Finance (2004) A Guide to Brownfields Financial Tax Incentive Program. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario.

Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (2000) Brownfields Showcase. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario.

Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (2000) Municipal Financial Tools for Planning and Development. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario.

Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) (2004a) Brownfields Showcase II: Opportunities in Our Own Backyard. Queens Printer for Ontario, Toronto.

Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) (2004b). Website.

Piccione, L. (2003) "The 'erasing' of brownfields in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada." In E. Tiezzi, C. Brebbia, eds. Ecosystems and Sustainable Development IV. Southampton: WIT Press.

Piccioni, L. and C. Morgan. (2000) "Clean Planning for Dirty Soils: Municipal Planning's Use of the Record of Site Condition." A two-part series in Ontario Planning Journal May/June 2000, Vol. 15, No. 3 and July/August 2000, Vol. 15 No. 4.

Piccioni, L. (2001) "Incentive Programs: Promoting the Redevelopment of Brownfield Properties." Economic and Technology Development Journal of Canada 76-81.

Piccioni, L. (2002) "Around the Table with Brownfields." Brownfield News July/August 2002, p. 6.

Piccioni, L. (2003) "The Erasing of Brownfields in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada." Ecosystems and Sustainable Development Volume 2, Wessex Institute of Technology, 779-787.

Piccioni, L. (2003) Economic Development Incentive Tools. A Working Paper for the Port Colborne Harbourfront and Waterfront Revitalization Strategy, November 2003.

Piccioni, L. (2004) "Financial Incentives for Brownfields Development in Canada." Brownfield News July 2004, 20-21.

Poch, Harry. (2003) "Ontario brownfields: municipal grants, loans and tax assistance." Municipal World 113:7, July 2003, 17-19.

Powel, S. (2002) Pre-Purchase Due Diligence - What Constitutes Adequate Due Diligence? Paper presented at Environmental Law for Practicing Professionals: Module II - Environmental Considerations in Land and Business Transactions, 4 November 2002.

Prime Minister's Caucus Task Force on Urban Issues (2002) Canada's Urban Strategy - A Blueprint for Action. Final report, available at

RCI Consulting and Regional Analytics (2004) Brownfield Redevelopment for Housing: Literature Review and Analysis. Ottawa: Report Prepared for the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.

Regional Analytics Inc. (2002) A preliminary investigation into the economic impact of brownfield redevelopment activities in Canada. Report Prepared for the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Available at

Regional Municipality of Niagara (2002) Community Renewal in Urban Areas: Waiver/Exemption from Regional Development Charges. Report CSD 151-2002/DPD 131-2002, October 2002.

Ross, A. (2004) "Institutional Capacity in Canada." Brownfield News March 2004, Vol. 1.

Rowe, S. (1996) "Site Cleanup Guidelines Include Land Use Advise." Ontario Planning Journal 11(16): 187-191.

Salamone, J. D. (1998) Setting the Scene for Investment in Brownfields: The International Public Policy Context. Paper presented at the Waterfront Regeneration Trust conference on Building Sustainable Communities through Brownfield Redevelopment, Toronto, April 7, 1998.

Santo, A. (2003) An Assessment of Brownfield Policy and the Government's Role in Brownfield Redevelopment. A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of urban and Regional Planning. Kingston, Ontario: School of Urban and Regional Planning, Queen's University.

Saxe, D. (2000) "Barriers to Brownfields Redevelopment." HazMat Magazine,February/March 2000.

Saxe, D. (2002) "Spirit of Halloween." Municipal World March 2004, 39-40.

Saxe, D. (2003) "Bedeviling Brownfields Issues." HazMat Magazine December/January 2003.

Sheppard, S., Gaudet, C., Sheppard, M., Cureton, P. and Wong, M. (1992) "The Development of Assessment and Remediation Guidelines for Contaminated Soils, a Review of the Science." Canadian Journal of Soil Science 72, 359-394.

Smith, D. and Stanley, S. (1995) "Development of a Cleanup Protocol for Contaminated Site in Canada." Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Educational Practice 121, 67-70.

Spergel, J. (2001) "HUD's BEDI Program Provides Significant Brownfields Funding Opportunities." The Legal Intelligencer March 29.

Tam, E. and Byer, P. (2002) "Remediation of contaminated lands: a decision methodology for site owners." Journal of Environmental Management 64, 387-400.

TEDCO (2002) TEDCO and Toronto's Port Lands: Brownfields Development on the Waterfront. Strategy Institute Conference.

Therrien, R. (1995) "Canadian Contaminated Land Policy." Chemistry and Industry 13: 515-517.

Villemaire, B. (1999) "An Urban Conundrum: Industrial Brownfield Redevelopment." Canadian Industrial Property Guide 30, 100-102.

Villemaire, B. (2001) "An Urban Recyclable: Brownfield Redevelopment as Smart Growth." Economic & Technology Journal of Canada 2001: 68-74.

Visser, W. J. (1995) The Limit Value Criterion: Comparison of Various International Approaches to Contaminated Land. Paper presented at the European Conference on Environment organized by the Engineering Centre for Environmental Protection, Palermo, Italy.

Willis, S. (2004) "Brownfield Policy Reform: A Five Year Perspective" Ontario Planning Journal July/August 2004, Vol. 19, No. 4.

Wilson, H. D. (2002) Brownfield Redevelopment: An Urban Revitalization Tool for Reducing Urban Sprawl. University of Laval, Quebec: URBANA Independent Study, Professor Pierre Frechette.

Zegarac, M. and Muir, T. (1998) The Effects of RAP Related Restoration and Parkland Development on Residential Property Values: A Hamilton Harbour Case Study. Burlington, Ontario: Environment Canada.


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