DETERMINING WHETHER RIPPLES WERE DEPOSITED BY A CURRENT, WAVE ACTION, OR COMBINED FLOW...
Photo 1: Dr. Isbell explains the different types of ripples and how to calculate ripple indices to Jim, Carrie, Quinton, and Joe.  Ripples may be deposited by:


STEP 1: Choose a good ripple to measure. A good ripple is an "average" ripple, or a ripple that is representative of a particular location. 
STEP 2:
Determine the stoss and lee sides of the ripple. The stoss side has a gentle slope, and the lee side has a steep slope. The stoss and lee sides also help you determine the direction of flow. 
STEP 3:
Take the measurements of the stoss side length, lee side length, and height. Our class made pencil marks on the actual ripples so we knew where to start and end our measurements. 

How To Take Measurements:

STEP 4:
Calculate the ripple indices where: L = ripple length (stoss side + lee side) H = ripple height L / H = ripple index
Note: all of our measurements were taken in centimeters. 
Photo 4: Kim recording and interpreting data. 
STEP 5:
Interpret your results. If the average ripple index is:
**The average ripple index was 8.33, which means they were most likely
deposited by combined flow.

This page was created by: Carrie Elizabeth Check (102803).