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Generator Protection


This three-day course is designed to provide basic concepts as well as in-depth discussion of schemes associated with the electrical protection of large generators.

Scheme discussions include hazards necessitating the protection, protection philosophy, setting criteria and example settings calculations.


Participants in this three-day course use the instructor's text, "Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems." The following is discussed.
Generator Normal Operation
Generator Capability
Voltage limitations
System Limitation
Capability variations with voltage
Excitation Systems Overview

Generator Short Circuit Calculations
Short Circuit Characteristics
Generator Magnetic Structures
Generator Constantans
Fault Calculations Methods
Voltage Regulator Effects

Generator Differential Relay
Idea Differential Relay
CT Imposed Limitations
Relay Characteristics

Stabilizing Resistor Application

Frequency Response

Backup Fault Protection
Overcurrent Relay
Voltage Control and Voltage Restraint Relays
Distance Relay
Characteristics and Setting Consideration
Load Limits
Influence of Wye-Delta GSU Transformer

Generator Ground Fault Protection
Grounding Methods and Considerations
Solidly Grounded
High-Impedance Grounding
Low-Impedance Grounding
Ground Fault Protection
Alarm vs tripping
High Impedance Ground Protection
Low Impedance Ground Protection
100% stator Protection Schemes
Harmonic Schemes
Neutral injection Schemes

Unbalance Current Protection
Negative Sequence Current
Effects of Negative Sequence Current on Generator
Generator Negative Sequence Capability
Sources of Negative Sequence Current

Motoring Protection
Effects of Motoring
Motoring Protection
Sequential Trip Logic
Backup Protection

Field Winding Protection
Field Ground Protection
Hazards and Detection
Field Overcurrent Protection
Full load field current values

Maximum field current from Bridge-Rectifier

Causes and Damage
Volts/Hertz limits
Field Monitoring Relay
V/Hz Limiters
V/Hz Relay Application
Settings for Transformer and Generator Protection
Differential Relay Response to Overexcitation

Abnormal Frequency Protection
Effects on Generator
Steam Turbines, Combustion Turbines, Hydro
Effects on Excitation System
Protection and Settings
Primary and Backup Protection

Minimum Excitation Limiter
MEL Application Overview
Generator Leading Var Capability
Coordination with Loss-of-Field
System Stability Limitations
MEL Characteristics
MEL Dynamic Performance

Loss-of-Synchronism Protection
Turbine-Generator Damage
Transient Stability
Out-of-Step Protection Schemes
Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic
Dynamic Swing Representation

Loss-of-Field Protection
Factors Effecting Loss-of-Field Severity
Potential Generator Damage
Protection Schemes
Other causes of LOF Tripping

Synchronizing Protection
Potential damage to Generator and Stepup Transformer
Breaker Considerations
Synchronizing Methods
Sync-Check Relay
Auto Synchronizing
Slow close protection

Accidental Energization Protection
Generator State at Energization
Inadvertent Energization at Standstill
Dynamic Analysis
Breaker Flashover
Generator and Turbine Damage
Protection provided by other schemes
Dedicated Energization Protection Schemes

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Benefits and Learning Outcomes

  • Examine Grounding Methods and Considerations
  • Explore Synchronizing Methods, hazard confirmation, failure scenarios and how to recognize and prepare protection schemes
  • Understand Frequency Protection, Harmonic Schemes and Breaker Considerations

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This program can be applied toward the:

Dates and locations to be announced.
Fee: $1175
CEUs: 2.0
  Generator Protection course details PDF
Email us with your interest, contact:
Marcia Gabriel,, 414-227-3378
Murali Vedula,, 414-227-3121


Fall 2015 Electrical Engineering Brochure
Electrical Brochure
Or download the pdf